Vol 22 (2023)

Table of Contents

  1. Research Article
    Dynamics of Teaching Performance Standards on Curriculum Implimentation in Public Schools in Bungoma County, Kenya PDF
    Protas Fwamba Khaemba, Moses Wekesa Soita
    This study assessed effects of teaching performance standards on curriculum implementation and delivery in public schools in Bungoma County, Kenya. The study was objective was to assess if every teacher has complied with the teaching performance standards. The study was based on education production function theory, which places students’ performance as function of teachers` quality of input/ curriculum service delivery. The study employed simple random sampling where two lists were prepared for public primary and secondary schools and 10% of the schools, teaching staff and deputy heads were randomly picked from the lists. Out of 73 primary, 29 secondary, 1971 teachers and 102 deputy heads a sample frame of 7 primary schools, 3 secondary schools, 197 teachers, 7 deputy head from primary and 3 from secondary were used. Correlation and regression were used in data analysis. The paper singles out syllabus coverage, lesson attendance, marking of learners’ exercise books and teaching/learning Aids as major factors influencing curriculum implementation in schools. The paper concludes that if teachers comply with all the teaching performance standards, effective implementation of curriculum will be achieved.  The paper recommends the study on IEP to assess its effect on quality of education in Bungoma County.

  2. Research Article
    Some Aspects of The Political Modernization of Uzbekistan PDF
    Ernazarov Dilmurod Zukhriddinovich
    This article reveals the content, purpose of political modernization and its methodological basis in Uzbekistan. The analysis of the main paradigms about political modernization has been carried out. The ways of Uzbekistan in modernization are considered. A brief description of the process of political modernization in Uzbekistan is considered. The studied experience of socio-political thought is necessary to address issues of political modernization in Uzbekistan.

  3. Research Article
    The Contribution of the Community to the Development of School Projects among Ward Secondary Schools in Magu District, Tanzania PDF
    Ibrahim Kitigwa, Daniel Onyango
    The purpose of this study was to establish the contribution of the community to the development of school projects among ward Secondary Schools in Magu District, Tanzania. The study was guided by Social System Theory. The study adopted a mixed research design.The target population of the study was 1061, consisting of 1 District Education Officer, 20 heads of secondary schools, 20 Ward Education Officers and 20 Ward Executive Officers. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 276 community members while 5 school heads, 4 Ward Education Officers, 4 ward Executive Officers and one District Education Officer were purposively selected. Questionnaires and interview guides were used to collect data. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics in terms of frequencies and percentages while Narrative Analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The findings indicated that despite Fee Free education policy still community members contributed to the development of school projects in Magu District mostly in the form of finances. Secondly, it was found that the method of resource mobilization that exist is mainly contributions from parents. The study recommended that the community should be educated on other forms of contribution to foster school development projects. And once the funds are available they should be used prudently so as to motivate community participation.

  4. Research Article
    A Study of the Reflections of the World Youth Movements That Emerged in 1968 in Türkiye PDF
    Selin Çınar
    The research work aims to ask why and there was a youth movement; it would not only be a question of how the student movement began in the world, so this research impacted the international dimension to reflect Türkiye's arrangement of 68 generations of protection of its independence but also of attempting to provide a vulnerability that was born in 1945 and that fits into the intricate field of political depression, emphasizing the difficulty of life in a modernization way.

  5. Research Article
    Right to Education Act: Claiming Education for Every Child PDF
    Kanak Priya, Pushpalata Kumari
    Educational rights are prime reality for India’s millions of children who can be rightfully termed as social categories at risk of exclusion. These children have been deprived of education of minimum quality while some of them remain even beyond the reach of formal schooling. The irony is that their educational deprivation is obtained at the backdrop of India’s most enabling constitutional guarantees, judicial and legislatures that are well-equipped to protect and uplift the pathetic existential conditions of these social groups. A conscious neglect of school education in the initial decades of independent India is termed by Dreze and Sen(2013) as a ‘home-grown folly’. 1 This study aims to investigate the challenges of the Right to Education Act, 2009 among  Primary School Teachers of Purnea district of Bihar. A descriptive survey is used in the study. The information was gathered from as many in-service teachers as possible working in primary schools of Purnea. A questionnaire with open-ended objective questions was created to investigate teachers' perspectives, challenges, and suggestions regarding the RTE Act. The study's findings revealed a significant gap between policy involvements and how they are actually perceived and implemented in the field.

  6. Research Article
    Speech Act Analysis of Educational Webinars PDF
    Mohammed Nasser Abdulsada, Hussein Hameed Darweesh
    Mediated by technology, delivered by professionals, and facilitated by moderators, webinars are any online sessions, workshops, and seminars streamed live, recorded, or pre-scheduled times and dates, to discuss a certain educational, business, scientific, or any topic. Webinars often receive a huge attendance or audience from many peers, laymen, or professionals. This paper investigates the use of speech acts in two educational webinars drawing on a pre-observation that presenters and moderators in webinars use pragmatic devices. The paper introduces and defines the research key terms; speech acts, webinars, and online discourse. Then, previous studies, research questions, data, methodology, and limits are presented. The analysis is limited to two American educational webinars. Following data selection, the analysis is conducted according to Searle’s (1975) theory of speech acts. The research finds that presenters and moderators in webinars used certain speech acts to express meanings, issue directions, direct sessions, react to the audience, share background demos, and switch topics. Moreover, the presenters and moderators in webinars use speech acts more than other linguistic devices because these forms can easily and clearly communicate meanings and feelings.

  7. Research Article
    The Deterioration of the State Building in Yemen PDF
    Sherif Heikal, Asaad Abdulkareem Qahtan

    This article aimed to identify whether the politicized Yemeni tribes after the unification played a negative role in transforming the building of the unified Yemeni state into a failed state during the rule of late President Saleh's period. Although the peoples of Yemen in the north and south were eager to achieve Yemeni unity and get Yemen out of the focus of conflict and strive towards a more stable reality in which law prevails within the modern Yemeni state, the unity failed. Tribal and political leaders were part of the patronage network that weakened the unified state and its institutions, also creating an unstable culture and obscuring the concept of Yemeni unity, especially in southern Yemen after the summer war of 1994. The Yemeni scene today comes to confirm that Yemeni unity was based on politicized tribal pillars, and therefore the status quo cannot be resolved in the absence of the modern Yemeni state and the continuity of politicized tribal forces. So, this study discusses the Yemeni reality and the accumulations that led it to consider a failed state by highlighting the political stability in the light of the Yemeni institutional capacities.

  8. Research Article
    Residents’ Awareness and Patronage of Tourism Attractions in Calabar, Nigeria PDF
    O. Ohwo, O. E. Ndakara
    The study analyzed residents’ awareness and patronage of tourism attractions in Calabar. Data for the study were obtained with a structured questionnaire, which was administered to 384 sampled respondents using the systematic sampling technique. The result of the regression analysis (r = 0.893, r2 = 0.797, p = 0.00, α = 0.05) shows that the relationship between awareness and patronage was significant at the 5% level of confidence. Therefore, the level of patronage of the existing tourism attractions in Calabar depends meaningfully on the level of awareness. Calabar Carnival had the highest proportion (98.6%) of awareness (370) to patronage (365), while Brickfield Prison Wall recorded the lowest proportion (43.6%) of awareness (225) to patronage (98). The study also revealed that the major medium of residents’ awareness of the tourism attractions was by friends and families, which accounted for 36%. Furthermore, the major constraints militating against residents’ patronage of the tourism attractions were poor publicity of tourism attractions, insecurity, and poor residents’ purchasing power amongst others. The authors recommend that adequate publicity of the existing tourism attractions should be conducted using various channels to increase patronage. Also, all identified constraints militating against residents’ patronage of the existing tourism attractions should be addressed adequately to put tourism development in Calabar on a sustainable path.

  9. Research Article
    Effect of Women Empowerment on Family Life: Perception of Husband and Wife PDF
    Md Maruf Billah

    Women empowerment is considered as the powerhouse of global development. This study attempted to explore the perception of husband and wife regarding the effects of women empowerment on family life. The research was conducted at three upazila of Khulna district, Bangladesh. Data were collected from purposively selected ninety (90) respondents using a structured questionnaire during January 2023. The focus variable named as effect of women empowerment on family life was measured using a 5-point rating scale. Results indicated that, education is the key factor of enhancing women empowerment. The findings exposed that almost two-third (64.4%) of the male respondents perceived medium effect of women empowerment on family life while majority of the female counterparts (60%) perceived high effect respectively. However, majority (95.6%) of the male respondents opined that women empowerment generate more income to the family whereas most (98.3%) of the female respondents agreed that women empowerment is very effective in giving decision making power. It was found that respondents’ age, educational qualification, organizational participation, training exposure, cosmopolitanism, knowledge, and attitude demonstrate significant relationship with the focus variable. It is high time to change our attitude towards women empowerment for overall development of the world.

  10. Research Article
    A Prospective Primary School Teachers Confidence in Teaching Disciplinary History: A Case of Finland PDF
    Mengesha Robso Wodajo, Teshale Aklilu
    The main objective of this article review is to evaluate the existing literature on disciplinary history teaching. The evaluators choose one reputable article written by well-known Professor Rantala and PhD student Khawaja, entitled "Prospective Primary School Teachers' Confidence in Teaching Disciplinary History." The reviewers of this article chose this article because both authors raised a very influential and needed curriculum issue. I have been devoted to going through all the points in constrictive forms, starting with introducing the article, surveying previous research, summarizing results, and discussion. Finally, the evaluator provides his personal view on how it applies and provides questions to the article writers.

  11. Research Article
    Some Notes on the Proliferation of Selected Private Psychology Centres in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, 1983-2021 PDF
    Nadir Abdulhadi Nasidi, Elizabeth Anorkor Abbey, Usman Bakari
    Since the introduction of psychology as an institutionalised course worthy of study at the University of Ghana in 1963, it continues to gain ground, especially through the proliferation of private psychology centres across the country. Drawing from both primary and secondary sources in the form of oral interviews with psychologists and written documents, this paper traces the historical development of some private psychology centres in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The paper identifies understanding the core psychological conditions of cases, clients’ misunderstanding of the role of psychologists, lack of patronage, and referral inconsistencies as the major challenges debilitating against private psychology centres in the study area. Apart from the fact that there is a total absence of fully-fledged public psychology centres in Ghana, the study concludes that there is a strong need for societal orientation about psychology services by constituted authorities.

  12. Research Article
    The Impact of Citizenship Education in Nurturing Students’ Positive Behaviours: Exploring the Perceptions of Students in a Private School in Dubai PDF
    Hind Alzarouni, Solomon Arulraj David
    The aim of this study is to analyse the impacts of citizenship education (CE) in enhancing positive behaviours among students. The study particularly explored the perceptions of students on this in a private school in Dubai. Theory of global citizenship and social theory of global citizenship were influential in this study to form necessary theoretical understanding. A questionnaire with quantitative and qualitative questions were distributed among high school students to measure the impact of citizenship education in nurturing students’ positive behaviours. The findings of the research indicate that CE helps learners improve their interpersonal capabilities and their positive behaviours. The study contents that citizenship education enhances positive learning experience among students. As this is a single case study focusing on one institution it is difficult to generalize the findings. The study claims that CE is an important element that can enhance learners’ achievement. It is concluded that CE increases learning, making important decisions, and improving personal learning.

  13. Research Article
    Efficiency of Web-Based, Computer and Mobile Software Applications in Facilitating Teaching and Learning of Chemical Concepts PDF
    Hassan Aliyu, Faruku Aliyu
    Some of the most commonly used technologies for chemistry education are web-based, mobile, and computer software applications. Thus, this study investigated the teachers’ perceptions of the efficiency of web-based, mobile, and computer software applications in facilitating the teaching and learning of chemical concepts. The study adopted a survey research design to cover a large, scattered population in the shortest possible time. The survey was developed from the literature of related studies. About 266 responses were retrieved from an estimated population of 700 chemistry teachers in both public and private secondary schools, polytechnics and monotechnics, colleges of education, and universities across the Sokoto metropolis. The obtained data was computed and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. The result of the study reveals that chemistry teachers considered web-based, mobile, and computer software applications efficient in delivering effective classroom and laboratory instructions.

  14. Research Article
    Problems Associated With the Use of ICTs by the Rural People: A Study in Assam PDF
    Munmi Boruah, Sayanika Borah
    The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is becoming very important for the people to cope up with the digital advancements. The present study was conducted on 120 members of Jorhat and Golaghat District of Assam with the objective of finding out the availability and accessibility to different ICTs tools and the problems faced by the respondents associated with use of ICTs by the rural people. The information was gathered from the respondents using a structured interview schedule through personal interview method. The research design adopted for the present study is exploratory and descriptive. From the study it was found that the majority of the rural people possessed Television. It was found that more than half (56.70%) respondents were belonged to medium level of digital media possession. The respondents had very less participation in training related to ICT and among the various problems faced by the respondents in utilization of digital devices. “Fear of committing any mistake”, “High cost of internet packs” and “Poor network connectivity” topped the list with mean score 5.00, 4.98 and 4.66 respectively. The paper recommends for providing formal and informal trainings related using of ICTs in different activities.

  15. Research Article
    A Study on Teacher Evaluation System to Improve Professional Development Among Junior High School Teachers in Ghana PDF
    John Kwasi Annan, Seung Hee Back, Hae Young Lim

    The study examined the perceptions of teachers and supervisors in four circuits from the Oforikrom Municipality in the Ashanti Region of Ghana on the impact of the Teacher Evaluation Process on their classroom practices and professional growth. The study sought to determine to what extent the process of evaluation and the role evaluators played in the process influenced the teacher’s classroom practices and their professional growth. The themes that emerged from the data defined a new teacher-centered interpretation of evaluation and leadership expected of supervisors.

    The study employed the simple qualitative methodology with narrative inquiry as the method. Interviews were conducted on Twenty-Four (24) participants from 12 schools in 4 circuits. The findings indicated that summative evaluation had prominence over the formative and that increased the level of subjectivity. The study therefore recommended that teacher evaluation be aligned with professional development to establish a positive link between them.

  16. Research Article
    Feelings of Insecurity in Hotels and Host Communities, Ibadan, Nigeria PDF
    Adeola Francisca Oladele, Gbenga John Oladehinde, Adeleke Lateef Adeniyi, Olubunmi Lukman Lawal
    The study examines factors influencing the feelings of insecurity in Hotels and Host Communities of Ibadan, Nigeria. The results showed that theft, fraud, robbery sexual abuse, and burglary were the most frequently worried crime in the hotel industry while robbery, theft, fraud, burglary, and sexual abuse were highly worried among the residents of host communities. Using factor analysis, Mechanical/personal (42.7%), human (19.5%), economic (11.53%), and environmental factors (8.49%) were the factors influencing the feelings of insecurity among hotel staff while human/personal (49.30%), economic (11.261%), mechanical (7.49%), and environmental factor (6.52%) were the factors among residents of host communities. The study concluded that irrespective of the geographical area, feelings of insecurity is associated with different determinants and criminal activities vary based on several factors.

  17. Research Article
    Enhancing Good Governance Principles and Practices in African Militaries: A Qualitative Inquiry of the Ghana Armed Forces PDF
    Kwabena Nkansah Simpeh
    The significance of incorporating good governance principles and practices into the security sector is widely recognized as crucial for enhancing the democratic culture of African nations. This study focused on examining the nature, principles, and practices of good governance within the Ghana Armed Forces, as well as identifying the barriers that hinder the pursuit of a good security governance agenda. Furthermore, strategies to overcome these obstacles were explored. To investigate this phenomenon, a qualitative methodology was employed, specifically in-depth interviews with selected personnel from the Ghana Armed Forces. Through thematic narrative analysis, three main themes emerged: the prevalence of good governance principles and practices, the challenges that impede the implementation of such an agenda, and the available strategies to overcome these challenges. This study contributes to the broader discourse on enhancing good governance in African militaries and offers insights for improving the effectiveness and integrity of military institutions across the continent.

  18. Research Article
    Marites Culture in the Philippines: An Emergent Online Gossip Phenomenon PDF
    Jefferson M. Cuadra
    This research article explores the emergence and characteristics of Marites culture in the Philippines, specifically focusing on its role in shaping social relations and communication during the pandemic and the present. Utilizing literature review approach and sociological perspectives, the study analyzes media reports and online sources to investigate the origins, features, and implications of Marites culture. The research emphasizes the significance of Marites culture as a reflection of broader social and cultural trends in the Philippines, including the increasing importance of online communication and the influence of traditional gossip practices. Moreover, the study examines the potential advantages and disadvantages of Marites culture, such as its ability to disseminate information and shape public opinion, as well as its potential to spread misinformation and trigger social tensions. The findings underscore the necessity for a critical and nuanced understanding of emerging cultural phenomena, considering their historical, social, and cultural contexts and implications.

  19. Research Article
    Distribution and Patterns of Interstate Migrants in the UT of J&K and Ladakh, (India): A District Level Analysis PDF
    Javeed Ahmad Rather

    Internal migration is a crucially important source of income for low-income households and communities in developing nations. The current work aims to study distribution and patterns of inter-state in-migration in the union territory of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh (erstwhile J&K State, India). The study is based on secondary database of Census of India. Z-Score has been used for the identification of high and low interstate migrant regions in Jammu and Kashmir. Beside this, different statistical diagrams were used to present the results. The findings of the study reveals that migrants recorded in 2011 are more than double as compared to the migrants recorded in 1971. Regionally, Jammu region recorded the highest number of interstate migrants in the UT of J&K followed by Kashmir division and the lowest number of migrants recorded in the UT of Ladakh. District level analysis displays that Jammu district recorded the highest percentage of migrants followed by Kathua, Udhampur and Samba in Jammu division while as Srinagar recorded the highest percentage of migrants followed by Anantnag and Baramulla in Kashmir division. The results of the study will be used for the formulation of policies for the workers and the migrant regions of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.

  20. Research Article
    Impact of Commercial Banks’ Loan on Agricultural Output in Nigeria PDF
    Sule Magaji, Gana Usman, Abdullahi Temitope Yusuf
    The study analyzed agricultural loan administration by some selected Commercial banks in Nigeria. It adopted the survey research design and uses primary data obtained from commercial banks and agricultural loan seekers in Federal Capital Territory Abuja. Mean and standard deviation was used to answer the research question and logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between the responses of agricultural loan seekers and commercial banks the Findings revealed among others: there is positive impact of agricultural loan by commercial banks on agricultural output in Nigeria, there are barriers to Agricultural Loan Administration by commercial banks in Nigeria. The study recommends that government should legislate other sources of low-cost funding such as the pension funds and the housing scheme funds for commercial banks to finance farmers at low cost and long term.

  21. Research Article
    The Royal Niger Company (RNC) and the Making of Modern Nigeria, 1879-1899 PDF
    Sunday Moses Adebayo Aloko
    The paper examines the complex historical processes that culminated in the founding of modern Nigeria since the 19th century on the backdrop of primary and secondary data of historical research. These events were the abolition of the slave trade and the introduction and promotion of legitimate trade and commerce by Christian missionaries and imperial companies. This was in the era of the new imperialism, which was characterised by trade monopoly and imperial contestations amongst European trading companies and merchants. The competing commercial companies were later chattered to act on behalf of their imperial governments in acquired territories and to acquire more territories for them where possible. It was primarily due to the industrial revolution which started in Britain and created the need for raw materials, which were considered readily available in Africa to feed their home industries. It argues that the resultant enhanced contacts between the British and the peoples of the Nigerian area, facilitated by these consequential historical developments, holds the key to understanding the formation of Nigeria in 1914. The reason being that the British utilised the agency of the Royal Niger Company (RNC) to establish her influence and conditions necessary for the eventual colonisation of Nigeria. The study contends that, Goldie’s chattered RNC not only acquired and rule territories on behalf of the Crown and secured British imperial interest in the area now called Nigeria, but also made it possible for the British to shrug off intense rivalry from their arch rivals, the French and Germans. To this end, it argued that Fredrick Lord Lugard’s amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorates in 1914, only built on the foundation which Goldie and his company, the RNC, had already laid.

  22. Research Article
    Comparing the State of Democratic Elections Among South Africa (2019), Tanzania (2020), and Ghana (2020) PDF
    Vivian Christopher Kapilima
    The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) (2021) indicates that Tanzania has scored lower democratic performance than Ghana and South Africa, however, the criteria used for ranking democratic performance are general and not specific enough to justify the state of democratic elections in comparative terms, between South Africa, Ghana, and Tanzania. These countries share some features, for instance, the adoption of international instruments for governing democratic elections, however, they have different scores in democracy, with Tanzania being at the low level, as indicated by the EIU. These observations warrant the need to compare their state of democratic elections and explore why Tanzania earned a low democratic performance in its 2020 elections compared to Ghana and South Africa. The Most Similar Systems Design was used in case selection. The methodologies applied are secondary qualitative research. Findings indicate that Tanzania's level of democracy in its 2020 elections was low compared to South Africa (2019) and Ghana (2020). This is due to the number of challenges that Tanzania faced in its 2020 elections compared to Ghana and South Africa. Challenges range from the design of an electoral legal framework to the election administration. Recommendations for improving democracy in Tanzanian future elections are also provided.

  23. Research Article
    Socratic Wisdom for the Modern Youth: Relevance and Application in Contemporary Society PDF
    Givheart Carmelo Dano
    This research paper explores the enduring relevance of Socratic philosophy and its applicability to the challenges faced by the young generation in today's complex and rapidly evolving society. Drawing upon the timeless wisdom of Socrates, this study aims to provide actionable advice for young individuals navigating the complexities of modern life. By examining key Socratic principles such as critical thinking, self-examination, and the pursuit of virtue, this paper offers a framework for personal growth, ethical decision-making, and the cultivation of a meaningful and purposeful life.