Journal of Studies in Social Sciences

Journal of Studies in Social Sciences is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes papers in all aspects of Social Sciences and Humanities, including but not limited to: Anthropology, Archaeology, Criminology, Economics, Education, History, Linguistics, Communication studies, Political science, International relations, Sociology, Human geography, Psychology, and elements of other fields as well, such as Law, Cultural studies, Environmental studies, and Social work.

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Vol 21 (2022)

Table of Contents


Analyzing the Causes of the First World War PDF
Pushpalata Kumari, Nishikant Tiwari

The world has recently celebrated November 11 as the Remembrance Day to recall the end of First World War.   In the year 2021, 103rd anniversary of the formal end of the First World War provides an occasion to analyze the reasons which lead to this Great War.

The First World War was fought from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.  This is considered as the Great War which was combated between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers.  The Allied Powers were Russia, France, Britain and Italy. The United States also fought on the side of the Allies after 1917.  The Central Powers were Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.  It engulfed almost whole of Europe but the battle field was over-stretched upto Asia, Africa and American continents as well.

This war is also considered as First Total War in which not only the soldiers but even civilians participated. It left with an estimated death of nine million combatants and 13 million civilian as a direct result of the conflict. It created machinery for mass slaughter in the form of chemical and biological weapons as well.


Is Multiculturalism Antiquated? A Dialogic Debate on Negotiating Liberalism, Finding Symmetry and Sustenance PDF
Sushma Trivedi

Multiculturalism might simply be understood as managing relations of different communities residing within national boundaries on one hand and relations between the states and the community on the other hand. But the rapidly changing socio-economic world has given it multivalent political meanings and expressions. Multicultural societies are faced with challenges posed on identity, religious beliefs, and cultural equations. In recent times in wake of some unfortunate happenings, multiculturalism as a political ideology has come under the scanner and some scholars even pronounced its death. Nevertheless, multicultural societies are as much a reality of the modern globalized world as are the interlinked economies. Today world stands at crossroads, ideologies like 'difference blind position', 'hands-off neutrality', and models like 'melting pot' and 'salad bowl' have, if not failed then definitely proved insufficient to tackle the needs and aspirations of multicultural societies.

Multiculturalism is based on and nourished by the political philosophy of liberalism and liberal democracies are believed to be the fertile ground for its propagation. Therefore, this study destructures and deconstructs the principles of liberalism to present an insight into the efficacy and suitability of the classical form of liberalism for multicultural societies. It is emphasized that culture, the most crucial component of multiculturalism is pushed to the periphery in course of the practice of the fairness of justice and equal distribution of goods. Culture plays an important role in the formation of the identity of an individual and a group. Ignoring cultural differences also means undermining identity which manifests itself as somewhat liberal oppression and sometimes as denial of social justice.

It is concluded that in changed circumstances radical liberalism can become a source of conflict within the society rather than harmonizing differences. An alternative can be derived from within the liberal theories as thinkers like Rawls and Dworkin; not only acknowledge differences but also make slight provision for differential rights. A moderate broadening of the ideas can create a perfectly balanced model of liberalism for multicultural societies.

Political Violence and Democratic Sustenance in Nigeria: An Assessment of the 2015 and 2019 General Elections in Nasarawa State PDF
Erunke Canice Esidene, Joseph Shekwo, Bara'atu Abdullahi, Rabo Maikeffi
The main thrust of this study is to examine the relationship between political violence and the sustenance of democratic values in Nigeria, with particular reference to Nasarawa State. The tragedy of violence that has permeated electoral processes in Nigeria ever since inception of democratic project in 1999, and particularly those of 2015 and 2019 general elections, remain a cause for concern. The said elections have been essentially characterized by massive violence, rigging, snatching of ballot boxes, intimidation and suppression by political opponents, among others. The scenario in Nasarawa state has witnessed some form of irregularities ranging from vote buying, arson and several other irregularities, which have congealed to mar the process of democratic sustenance. This work is a survey research and, hence, adopts the use of primary and secondary sources of data collection as method of investigation. The major tool applied in the survey was questionnaire and interview method, while data was collected and analyzed using simple percentage analysis. The data generated was to be able to demonstrate possible linkages between political violence and the sustenance of Nigeria’s democratic system, using Nasarawa State as a point of departure. The results from the findings reveal that though conscious efforts have been made by government and other stakeholders to mitigate violence during elections, not much has been achieved in sustaining the peace either before, during or after elections. The study recommends, among other things, that more efforts are needed to adequately enforce the desired rules required to tame the tides of increasing violence in Nigeria generally, and specifically in Nasarawa state, as panacea for democratic sustenance in the 21st century and beyond.

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