Vol 21 (2022)

Table of Contents

Articles

Analyzing the Causes of the First World War PDF
Pushpalata Kumari, Nishikant Tiwari

The world has recently celebrated November 11 as the Remembrance Day to recall the end of First World War.   In the year 2021, 103rd anniversary of the formal end of the First World War provides an occasion to analyze the reasons which lead to this Great War.

The First World War was fought from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.  This is considered as the Great War which was combated between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers.  The Allied Powers were Russia, France, Britain and Italy. The United States also fought on the side of the Allies after 1917.  The Central Powers were Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.  It engulfed almost whole of Europe but the battle field was over-stretched upto Asia, Africa and American continents as well.

This war is also considered as First Total War in which not only the soldiers but even civilians participated. It left with an estimated death of nine million combatants and 13 million civilian as a direct result of the conflict. It created machinery for mass slaughter in the form of chemical and biological weapons as well.

 

Is Multiculturalism Antiquated? A Dialogic Debate on Negotiating Liberalism, Finding Symmetry and Sustenance PDF
Sushma Trivedi

Multiculturalism might simply be understood as managing relations of different communities residing within national boundaries on one hand and relations between the states and the community on the other hand. But the rapidly changing socio-economic world has given it multivalent political meanings and expressions. Multicultural societies are faced with challenges posed on identity, religious beliefs, and cultural equations. In recent times in wake of some unfortunate happenings, multiculturalism as a political ideology has come under the scanner and some scholars even pronounced its death. Nevertheless, multicultural societies are as much a reality of the modern globalized world as are the interlinked economies. Today world stands at crossroads, ideologies like 'difference blind position', 'hands-off neutrality', and models like 'melting pot' and 'salad bowl' have, if not failed then definitely proved insufficient to tackle the needs and aspirations of multicultural societies.

Multiculturalism is based on and nourished by the political philosophy of liberalism and liberal democracies are believed to be the fertile ground for its propagation. Therefore, this study destructures and deconstructs the principles of liberalism to present an insight into the efficacy and suitability of the classical form of liberalism for multicultural societies. It is emphasized that culture, the most crucial component of multiculturalism is pushed to the periphery in course of the practice of the fairness of justice and equal distribution of goods. Culture plays an important role in the formation of the identity of an individual and a group. Ignoring cultural differences also means undermining identity which manifests itself as somewhat liberal oppression and sometimes as denial of social justice.

It is concluded that in changed circumstances radical liberalism can become a source of conflict within the society rather than harmonizing differences. An alternative can be derived from within the liberal theories as thinkers like Rawls and Dworkin; not only acknowledge differences but also make slight provision for differential rights. A moderate broadening of the ideas can create a perfectly balanced model of liberalism for multicultural societies.



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