Vol 5, No 2

Table of Contents

  1. Research Article
    Relationship between Awareness of Sustainable Agriculture and Fertilizer Usage by Iranian Farmers in the City Of Bajestan in Khorasan Province: A Case Study PDF
    M.R. Shahpasand
    This study strove to determine farmers' awareness of sustainable agriculture and its relationship with fertilizer consumption. It is based on information collected from survey and a researcher-made questionnaire. The face validity (based on expert opinion) and reliability (Coronbach Alfa coefficient) were established for the questionnaire. The statistical population consisted of 5500 farmers in Bajestan County and the sample size was determined by Cochrane formula (n= 140) through a random sampling technique. Correlation analysis showed significant and positive relationship between the variables of manure, environmental pollution, use of resources for production, soil conservation and the preservation and restoration of resources, use of ammonium sulfate to produce a range of basic resources as well as between urea and ammonium nitrate fertilizers and improved agricultural activities. However, there is no significant relationship between Phosphate and Potash fertilizers, and none of the variables studied.

  2. Research Article
    Assessment of Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Food Security Based on Food Security Index Analysis: A Case from Vaishali District, India PDF
    Haroon Sajjad, Iffat Nasreen, Shahzad Ali Ansari
    The paper has generated Food Security Index as a composite index of its three component indexes and analyzed spatio-temporal variation in food security at block level in Vaishali district of a backward state in India during 2000-03 and 2007-10. FSI identified not only the blocks requiring immediate attention but also the specific priority areas in which the efforts could be focused to attain long term sustainability of food security. The composite FSI using time series data could help in identifying the priority components and analyzing the progress of development interventions over a period of time aimed at sustainable food security.

  3. Research Article
    Environmental and Management Stressors: Implications for Reproductive and Productive Performances of Farm Animals in the Tropics PDF
    NseAbasi N. Etim, Mary A. Oguike
    This review  examined environmental and management stressors of farm animals and the effects they have on reproductive and productive performances of livestock. Stress is revealed by the inability of an animal to cope with its environment, a phenomenon that is often reflected in a failure to achieve reproductive, productive and genetic potentials. Identification of environmental and management factors/stressors of farm animals is a major step to minimizing and treating stress in livestock. Environmental stress is not limited to climatic factor but extends to nutrition, housing and any stimuli that demand a response from the animal to adapt to new circumstances. Understanding of stressors that impact domestic farm animal productivity and management practices that can relieve stress within the environment will enhance animal comfort and help animal farmers maintain a secure, productive and low-cost food supply. Furthermore, a better understanding of the environmental and management stressors of farm animals and the effects on animal's reproductive and productive performances will enable farmers to establish and maintain suitable environments and employ proper management practices to our farm animals.

  4. Research Article
    Potentials and Contributions of Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture to the Lagos Megacity Region PDF
    Vide Adedayo
    With the production of only 10% of its food demand and one of the fastest growing cities in the world, the Lagos region is faced with multiple challenges of providing food, jobs healthy environment for its residents. Evolving state agricultural policies and programmes do not consider Urban and Peri-Urban Agricultural (UPA) as potentially viable agricultural scheme and existing UPA enclaves and communities are fast going into extinct due to lack of recognition and the informal nature of UPA in Lagos. The need to therefore enhance food supply, minimize socio-spatial fragmentation and disparities in regional development brought this study to focus.  This paper thus assesses the potentials and contributions of UPA to the Lagos Megacity systems in order to determine the untapped opportunities embedded in UPA in the Lagos region. Selected and relevant stakeholders of UPA (farmers, vendors, distributors, transporters, manure collectors, residents and neighbours, extension agents) were engaged in interviews and discussions across seven communities (Ibafo, Mowe, Ikorodu, Amuwo-Odofin, Tejuoso, Alapere and ojo) within the Lagos megacity region About 320 questionnaires were administered among farmers and other stakeholders.  Both qualitative and quantitative information were collected, collated, transcribed and analyzed using simple descriptive statistical, Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regression techniques. The study identifies income generation, food security and improved livelihood, job creation and use of waste as nutrient as the most important factors that contribute to relevance of UPA activities in the megacity region. Income generation and food security contribute the highest value (0.935). The paper recommends a more participatory UPA strategy in the megacity programme in solving the complex and emerging food insecurity, unemployment, waste disposal and income generation needs of the Lagos megacity region.

  5. Research Article
    Linkages between Integrator, Grower Involvement and Business Performance: Focus On Moderating Effect of Managerial Skill PDF
    Ahmad Shabudin Ariffin, Shahimi Mohtar, Nazim Baluch
    The aim of this study is to explain an investigation over the moderating effects relationship between integrator and grower involvement towards business performance in broiler production. The potential role of managerial skill as moderating variable between the aforementioned independent and the dependant variables are discussed. Broiler supply chain practices and its corresponding performance indicators in the form of broiler farming operations are among the important measures in the dependant variable (business performance). Based on the extensive survey of relevant literature, a research framework is then proposed. The content validity has been done by getting opinion from the experts namely Veterinary officers. Besides that the construct reliability is determined through value from Cronbach's Alpha. The data obtained was satisfactory for content validity and construct validity also fit the model as proposed previously.

  6. Research Article
    The Fishery of the Freshwater Oyster Etheria Elliptica (Etheriidae) in Northern Ghana: Its Distribution and Economic Importance PDF
    Akwasi Ampofo-Yeboah, Mark Owusu-Frimpong
    A survey was conducted for seventeen months in 1998 and 2008 to record indigenous knowledge on the freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica in the north of Ghana, with emphasis on its distribution and economic importance. The study showed natural occurrence of the oyster in the major rivers and their tributaries that form the northern Volta Basin: River Oti in the north-east serving as the international boundary between Ghana and Togo, the Black Volta River in the north-west serving as the international boundary between Ghana and La Cotê d'Ivoire, and the White Volta River running through the central portion. Apparently, the oyster is fairly widespread in the north. Biochemical analysis of fresh meat samples showed nutritional values that suggest that the White Volta and Oti stocks are the same. The oysters are sessile organisms and are usually collected from the riverbeds mostly by women and during low water levels in the dry season, using locally manufactured implements like hoes, chisels and hammer to dislodge them from the hard substrates to which they are attached.  The oyster fishery constitutes a major source of livelihood, providing employment, income and nutritious food for the local inhabitants.

  7. Research Article
    The Effect of Ground Speed, Reel Rotational Speed and Reel Height in Harvester Losses PDF
    Arman Jalali, Reza Abdi
    Every year large areas of agricultural fields in Iran are under cereal cultivation. Cereal in Iran is harvested mainly by combine harvesters. Although Grain product rate is high in Iran, the grain harvest loss leads to considerable loss of grain. Investigations on Grain loss in different combine units shows that  the largest losses occur in head of combine and is influenced by several reasons such as type of the combine, combine adjustments, harvest time and etc. This research was carried out to investigate the performance and grain losses on the combine harvester in East Azerbaijan province of Iran. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with nine replications was carried out. Three main treatments for this study were considered. Treatments consisted of ground speed (V) at three levels (1, 2 and 4 km/h), the reel rotation speed (W) at three levels (25, 32 and 40 round per minute) and the reel height (H) at three levels (87, 110 and 118 cm). The results showed that ear loss of three treatments, interaction of V × W and the triple interaction of V × W × H were significant (P≤ 0.01). Ground speed was the only significant factor effecting seed loss (P≤ 0.01). Data Mean showed that maximum loss occurred at the highest Ground speed and rotational speed of reel. The best treatment was 1 km h-1 Ground speed, 25 rpm reel rotational speed and 87 cm reel height.

  8. Research Article
    An Analysis of the Determinants of the Adoption of Improved Plantain Technologies in Anambra State, Nigeria PDF
    C.C. Olumba, M. A.Y. Rahji
    The study examined farmers' adoption of improved plantain technologies in Anambra State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered on one hundred and eighty six (186) adopters of the technologies. A multistage random sampling technique was employed in selecting the adopters. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC). The study showed a high level of awareness among the farmers. The adoption of these technologies was relatively low. The results revealed that farmers' age, farm size, household size, educational status, farmers' income and extension visit are significantly related to the farmers' level of adoption of the technologies. The socio-economic characteristics of plantain farmers were thus found to have significant effect on the adoption of the technologies. Farmers' awareness level was significantly related to the adoption of the technologies. Based on the findings, the study therefore recommends aggressive awareness campaign, farmers adult education programme and farm income expansion policy be put in place.