Vol 6, No 2

Table of Contents


Global Public Goods and Sustainable Development PDF
Mehmet Nar
Global problems which are among the most serious issues of our era have become a threat in terms of the existence of the world and human beings. The main concept we encounter in connection with aforesaid problems is sustainable development. The concept of sustainability focuses on that human beings have the right to live in harmony with nature and the necessity not to ignore developmental and environmental needs of future generations while meeting the needs of present generations. Nowadays it is seen that the concept of sustainable development is handled with various concepts. One of the most important of these concepts is global public goods. Especially in recent years it seems that global public goods are the whole of concepts which are suggested to define especially the activities concerning the environment. Our study primarily focuses on an analysis of sustainable development processes and the progress made. Then, while trying to question the improvements in global public goods, it is discussed to what extent the methods used in financing global public goods are realistic or effective.

Tourism – Dynamising Element in the Sustainable Development of South-West Oltenia Region PDF
Cerasela Vintilescu
The study examines the touristic potential of South-West Oltenia region. It proves that on territorial profile, the South-West Oltenia region might substitute for the problems of development of the National economy, through a good touristic capitalization. Natural touristic resources, being inexhaustible and uniformly distributed in the territory, become the defining elements of the analyzed geographical space. Their role can be maintained in superior parameters, having a polarizing effect of the territorial organization phase.

Sustainable Energy Future for Nigeria: The Role of Engineers PDF
Promise U. Chukwu, I.U. Ibrahim, J.O. Ojosu, H.A. Iortyer
Energy is an essential input for social development and economic growth. It provides basic needs and services such as heating, cooling, cooking, lighting, and transportation and is a critical production factor in virtually all sectors of industry. Sustainable energy development has currently taken over the lead as the most focal point in determining the developmental level of countries in the world. This paper discussed the current status of energy, examined the development and energy infrastructure in Nigeria. Engineers have a unique role to play in order to achieve this objective when compared with other occupations in industrial organizations. They play a semi-independent role influenced by their national diversity. Engineers, therefore, are under increasing pressure to redefine their roles and re-equip themselves with necessary skills and knowledge to meet adequately the contemporary changes. The paper also looked at the challenges engineers face in carrying out this role and also made suggestion of the possible ways of addressing those challenges.

Uncontrolled Urbanisation in Ghana: A Concern for Food Systems in the Wa Municipality PDF
Joyce Angnayeli Eledi, Elias Danyi Kuusaana
Even though food remains a basic need of man, the world still battles with food insecurity due to persistent constraints with food production systems especially in the Global South. The 2007/2008 food price hikes globally re-energised investment in innovative strategies of food production including urban agriculture. Unfortunately, uncontrolled urbanisation, incomprehensive and unsustainable land use systems have impacted gravely on food production in African cities. The effectiveness of food systems depends on efficient spatial and infrastructure planning mechanisms for spatial allocation to various land uses. This study was undertaken in the Wa Municipality in order to assess the impact of urbanisation and land use allocation strategies on the food production component of the food system within the context of existing land tenure systems and farming practices of the local people. Both explorative and descriptive research approaches were used to address the study objectives. The study revealed that indeed large tracts of hitherto agricultural land are indiscriminately being converted to urban infrastructure especially housing; yet the authorised planning institutions remain unable to formulate, implement and enforce land use plans that safeguard agricultural lands. Based on the general findings, strong policies and institutions are necessary to reserve high potential agricultural zones for agricultural purposes even within the city enclaves.

Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star, How Wonder Islamic Finance: Up Above the World So High, Like a Diamond in the Sky PDF
Najeb Masoud, Suleiman AbuSabha

This study investigates empirically into the acclaimed positive role played financial market leading growth, with evidence from the MENA Islamic finance. Utilising, several econometric techniques models, such as unit root test, co-integration test and formal tests of ARDL framework developed by Granger causality and quarterly MENA data for the period 2000:1- 2014:2. Empirical findings revealed that both Engle-Granger and Johansen co-integration test support the view that there is a short and long-run relationship between financial Islamic banking development and economic growth in MENA. On the other hand, there was no evidence to support the view that financial Islamic banking development in MENA is a leading sector in the process of the country’s economic development. In particular, the causality relationship between RGDP growth and finance of Islamic banks in MENA is a bi-directional long-run granger causality, which reflects positively growth contribution of financial Islamic banking development in the economic development. Higher development in the financial Islamic banking causes higher real economic growth. High economic growth in turn promotes development in the financial Islamic banking.

This study’s results will be useful in reaching policy decisions to develop financial Islamic banking to increase economic growth in developing countries or/ emerging economies, in general, and within MENA, in particular. Furthermore, providing empirical evidence regarding this critical issue within specific emerging economies will add to the literature on financial Islamic banking related to the role of Islamic finance development and its influence on economic growth and, thus, initiate an exciting topic for research as it is one of the pioneering studies of Islamic finance.

The Challenge of Designing Camouflaged Indoor Units as Means of Efficiency PDF
Randa Hassan Mohamed

Nowadays various reasons consequent to the contraction of the indoor space as; the phenomena of the rapid acceleration of time, the role of the economical issue rather than the issue of the land use that refers to attending the multiuse of the context of the space especially the indoor units. And consequently various meanings have been changed as Living in the sense of belonging to a place is more and more difficult today as one doesn’t not belong to one place but to more places at the same time so the context forming the space have to be camouflaged to match every purpose the man need and sometimes match the shape of the space or its size.

But these camouflaged units appeared to be prototypes with no certain criterion insisting the presence of the camouflage as a real aspect in the era, which can solve many problems in the indoor space especially when it refers to the eco efficiency.

So the main objective of the issue concerns the search for the presence of the camouflaged indoor units rather than declaring the criterions of measuring and designing the efficient one.

The Effectiveness of Negotiation Skills Training In Resolving Marital Conflicts among Selected Christian Literate Couples in Lagos Metropolis PDF
Bola O. Makinde, Ayeyika Funmi
This study investigated the effectiveness of negotiation skills training in resolving marital conflicts among selected Christian literate couples in Lagos metropolis. The study adopted a pre –test, post-test quasi experimental design. The sample consisted of 120 literate Christian couples. 60 couples each were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups respectively. The participants were given a pre-test self – designed questionnaire titled “Spousal Conflict Resolution Pattern Questionnaire” (SCRPQ). The experimental group was lectured for a period of four weeks on negotiation skills after which the post – test was carried out. The hypotheses were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Results of the hypotheses indicated that there was a significant mean difference between the experimental group and control group. It also showed that gender and length of marriage do not have any significant influence on spousal conflict resolution pattern. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended that counsellors and couples should be given extra training on communication, negotiation skills and cohabitation related skills that will enhance marital stability. This could be done through seminars and workshops on marriage counselling so as to enable them function maximally in marriage counselling among others.

Spontaneous Settlements: Roles and Challenges to Urban Planning PDF
E.S. Ekandem, P.I. Daudu, R.B. Lamidi, M.O. Ayegba, A. Adekunle
Spontaneous settlements are referred to as an outward spread of built-up areas caused by expansion, with inadequate provision of facilities. The formation of spontaneous settlements is as a result of urbanization, where rents go high as the city evolves thereby moving the low income earners to the suburbs for easy access to places of opportunity for casual work at the same time not far away from the city. This study examines the characteristics of Spontaneous settlements, factors responsible for their existence, basic problems associated with Spontaneous settlements, their challenges to urban planning, efforts that have been put in place for checking spontaneous settlements and how effective they have been over time. The study specifically focuses on settlements in Iyana Iyesi, Mupin, Ayetoro areas in Ota, Ogun State. Data was collected through physical observations and questionnaires. Data was also obtained from published articles and from the National Population Commission census publication. Examination of an interpretation key, plotting of the study area, geo-referencing and editing of maps with ground data were done to have a precise view of the study area. From the analysis, the existence of high residential density, overcrowding, poor drainage network or lack of it and general poor basic infrastructure shows that, the study area is a typical depiction of a Spontaneous settlement. In concluding the paper, it posits making planning proposals and recommendations based on the findings, for upgrading of the Spontaneous settlement to be functionally effective. The paper also makes room for assisted spontaneous settlements to be considered as alternatives to administered settlements which will allow land to be invaded and then regularize the occupiers.

Analysis of Thermal and Electrical Properties of Laterite, Clay and Sand Samples and Their Effects on Inhabited Buildings in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria PDF
A. Adekunle, E.S. Ekandem, K.E. Ibe, G.N. Ananso, E.B. Mondigha
Buildings are faced with situations bothering on effects of heat and electric current flow on occupants. Thermal comfort as well as the quantity of current expected in buildings is of paramount importance. Core materials used in erecting buildings were considered during this study.   This study is meant to analyze the thermal and electrical properties of laterite, clay and sand samples thereby picking out the most suitable for inhabited buildings. Each sample of laterite, sand and clay was placed in the sample chamber of Lee’s disc apparatus and sufficient heat was passed to the samples through the conical chamber. The in and out temperatures of the specimens were determined. The cooling curves of temperature against time were employed to determine their thermal conductivities while the resistivity was obtained through the thermocouple and multi-meter. A very low thermal conductivity of 3.5 x 101kgms-2Ɵ-1 and high resistivity of 0.0337Ωm were obtained for laterite samples. The results obtained revealed that the samples considered have different thermal conductivities, electrical resistivity and rates of cooling. The rate of cooling of laterite sample showed that it has low temperature fluctuations when it absorbs heat. The salt content of laterite sample in Ota was observed to be very minimal due to small quantity of current flowing through buildings constructed with such laterite sample analyzed. The electrical and thermal conductivity of laterites show they can easily withstand high current and intense heat much more than clay and sand. Based on the thermal and electrical properties of laterites obtained, it is therefore imperative to establish the need to embrace it as local building material while sand and clay could be used in the production of pipes, roof tiles and interior floor where the heat conductivity is of secondary concern. Laterite based buildings using NBRRI interlocking should be encouraged more in Nigeria especially those living in hot regions.

Reversing Ecological Degradation: A Way Forward for Global Environmental Governance PDF
Emmanuel Otutei
Environmental governance aims at sustaining earth’s ecosystem to be able to cater for the needs of generation unborn as well as protect nature from extinction. However, five decades of environmental governance have yielded abysmal results due to lack of strong institutions to carry out the environmental mandate. Moreover, there is lack of commitment towards environmental negotiations and compliance. There is also little efforts to enforce agreements and regulations while little incentive exists for adherence to these agreements. This paper therefore presents a brief exposition on environmental governance by elucidating its main dimensions and challenges; and proceeds to offer a way forward for environmental governance with insights from multi-level governance, taking into consideration the challenges and (political ecology and ecological economics) critiques of the mainstream.

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