Environmental and Management Stressors: Implications for Reproductive and Productive Performances of Farm Animals in the Tropics

NseAbasi N. Etim, Mary A. Oguike


This review  examined environmental and management stressors of farm animals and the effects they have on reproductive and productive performances of livestock. Stress is revealed by the inability of an animal to cope with its environment, a phenomenon that is often reflected in a failure to achieve reproductive, productive and genetic potentials. Identification of environmental and management factors/stressors of farm animals is a major step to minimizing and treating stress in livestock. Environmental stress is not limited to climatic factor but extends to nutrition, housing and any stimuli that demand a response from the animal to adapt to new circumstances. Understanding of stressors that impact domestic farm animal productivity and management practices that can relieve stress within the environment will enhance animal comfort and help animal farmers maintain a secure, productive and low-cost food supply. Furthermore, a better understanding of the environmental and management stressors of farm animals and the effects on animal’s reproductive and productive performances will enable farmers to establish and maintain suitable environments and employ proper management practices to our farm animals.

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