Vol 8, No 2

Table of Contents

Research Articles

Inclusion and Sport: Analysis of Selected South African Township Schools PDF
TM Makoelle
In 1994, South Africa adopted an inclusive system of education in line with the rest of the world. The doors of learning were opened to all learners regardless of their background or disability. However, in spite of the changes, the notion of inclusive school sport as enshrined and articulated in White Paper 6 on special needs' education published by the South African Department of Basic Education in 2001 has not been fully realized in terms of enabling a diverse inclusive sporting environment for all learners. The research on which this article is based therefore attempted to analyze the nature of school sport and suggest mechanisms for making school sport inclusive. The data of the qualitative study were extracted from interviews conducted with six principals, six sport organizers from three primary schools, and three physically disabled secondary-school learners from the Free State province of South Africa. To triangulate the data, interviews were conducted with three physically disabled secondary-school learners. A structuration theory lens and inductive analytical framework were used to analyze the data. The findings indicate that not enough provision has been made to accommodate the diverse sporting needs of learners, despite the implementation of inclusive education, and that teachers are not yet ready for inclusive school sport.

Impact of Corporate Crime on Developing Capital Markets: Case Study of Nigeria PDF
Ahmed Aliyu
Capital market has been globally acknowledged as one of the main driving forces for the growth of modern national economy in this era of globalization and liberalization. It provides an avenue for both local and international potential investors to access the wealth of a particular country through buying and selling of financial instruments such as shares, bonds, etc. One of the basic requirements for the market to attract investors is that it must be seen to operate under certain level of transparency built on trust and integrity This paper examines the impact of corporate crime within the Nigeria's capital market and its attendant effects on the national economy. The findings of the study reveals that, the cumulative effects of crime taking place within the Nigeria's capital market is seriously having negative impact on its development and the national economy. It is therefore the position of the paper that regulatory agencies of the market should cooperate with one another to ensure that perpetrators of the crime who are indicted or found to have committed such crime in a particular sector are not allowed to operate in another sub- sector of the economy.

Improving Vocabulary Learning Through Digital Stories with Iraqi Young Learners of English at the Primary Level PDF
May Ali Abdul-Ameer
This paper tries to explore the effects of Digital Stories on Vocabulary learning by Iraqi young learners at the primary level. In order to accomplish this aim a three week experiment was carried out at Al- Imams' Ali private primary school for girls in Al-Diwaniyah City (Iraq). Then a test was designed to investigate whether computer and internet- based technology could improve vocabulary learning in English as a foreign language. Findings indicate that the experimental group outperformed the control group in the test. These results raise interesting issues related to the use of technology in the context of foreign language learning. Further research on how to integrate internet and computer- based technology materials within a traditional methodology is needed in order to help English Language teachers take advantage of the Web and to bring that part of the world into the language classroom.

Procedural Utility and Cooperation: A Simple Illustration PDF
Sanghoon Lee
The current research shows that a cooperative equilibrium in prisoners' dilemma can be explained by incorporating procedural utility into a traditional utility function. This study contributes to the existing literature by showing that cooperation can be explained by a simple model that is not radically different from the traditional model.

The Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh: A Vulnerable Group in Law and Policy PDF
Hassan Faruk Al Imran, Nannu Mian
Bangladesh is an over populated country of South Asia. India and Myanmar are the closest neighboring states of Bangladesh with whom it shares its borders. Right after her independence in 1971, Bangladesh has started experiencing the constant refugee flight of Muslim Rohingya from Myanmar because of the fear of religious as well as ethnic persecution. Bangladesh has mostly welcomed them and provided them protection under the ad hoc decisions, notwithstanding there is no statutory law for the refugees. But till 2013, no solution has been found and the numbers of refugee flights have been gradually increasing to the extent it is said, Rohingya refugees are spoiling the reputation of Bangladesh in the international arena besides committing various crimes under the guise of fake Bangladeshi passport. Bangladesh is in a quandary over the refugee issues: firstly being the human rights issue and secondly the national security issue. I am of the positive and proactive opinion that it is now the appropriate time that Bangladesh should enact strict domestic laws to prevent the indirectly forced entrance of the Rohingyas from Myanmar. Qualitative and analytical research methods have been applied primarily; besides, non-doctrinal method has also been applied in this research.

Types, Causes and Management of Indiscipline Acts among Secondary School Students in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State PDF
A.A. Ali, I.T. Dada, G.A. Isiaka, S.A. Salmon
Acts of indiscipline among students especially at the secondary level of education is a universal challenge that is facing every school in all parts of the world. Based on this realization, the purpose of this paper is to explore the various acts of indiscipline, its causes and how it is being managed in different school settings. The population covers all administrative staff, teaching staff and the students who were regarded as stakeholders of the school system. The sample size of ninety (90) respondents was randomly selected across the groups of administrators, teachers and students. The data collected by structured questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics, while analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test of independent samples were employed as statistical tools to test the four hypotheses. The findings of this study revealed that various acts of indiscipline were prevalent among secondary school students. It was also gathered that several factors like the schools, students and the society at large contributed greatly to the acts of indiscipline among the students. It was also found that reduction strategies employed by various schools are not effective and as a result, the study recommended among other things that a wholesome approach to manage students' discipline should be adopted by the administrators and other stakeholders of the schools.

Reform of Criminal Law and Implications for Law Enforcement in Indonesia PDF
Ruslan Renggong
Criminal law reform is an attempt to bring law and order to suit the times and needs of the Indonesian nation. The update is done by the criminal law codification preparing the draft new Penal Code, in lieu of the Code of Criminal old. There are two drafts of the material in the book Criminal Justice Act which can lead to implications for criminal law enforcement in Indonesia is an exception to the principle of legality and still retained the death penalty. The results showed the whole  of the respondents agreed conducted criminal law reform. The majority  of respondents did not agree if any provision on the principle of legality exception because it can cause legal uncertainty and abuse of power, and the majority  of respondents did not agree because of the retention of the death penalty is contrary to human rights.

Qualitative Research: A Decisive Element to Epistemological & Ontological Discourse PDF
Samiul Parvez Ahmed, Mohammed Tanvir Zubair Ahmed
Qualitative research in social science is an invaluable way to understand social world. The qualitative research process of studying, knowing or learning about social world generates some philosophical debates. This article explores various critical concepts of qualitative research and how they are being perceived/defined in the research paradigm. In doing so, the article also examined the epistemological aspects of qualitative research; particularly, the article scrutinizes particular methods of conducting qualitative research and issues related to the appropriateness of verbal communication technique in qualitative research (e.g. "˜capacity' of interview technique for "˜knowledge construction', interviewers' role and its relation to data contamination, "˜evaluation' of interpretations of qualitative data). Then, the article highlights issues that encompass fundamental (ontological and epistemological) aspects of qualitative research. Finally, the article concludes that irrespective of the inherent issues of qualitative research approach, it plays crucial roles in knowing social world around us.

The Effects of Using Pedagogic Corpus as Target Formulas for Direct Instruction in an Academic Writing Class PDF
Nor Ashikin Ab Manan, Paramaswari Jaganathan, Ambigapathy Pandian
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of academic formula instruction using target formulas chosen from pedagogic corpus, on the use of the target formulas in an academic essay writing test, and the academic essay writing test scores. Two intact groups of Diploma in Computer Science students assigned as the experimental and control groups participated in the study. Each group consists of forty mixed ability ESL learners who were enrolled in an academic writing course. The study addressed two research questions. (1) What are the effects of formula instruction on the students' use of the target formulas? (2) What are the effects of formula instruction on the students' academic writing performance?

What Principles of Communication Law Are Violated in Manipulation PDF
Ştefan Vlăduţescu
The study investigates how manipulators and manipulation deviate from some law principles of communication. The research falls within a comprehensive framework of manipulation It starts from the four features of fraiming accredited by R. M. Entman (1993): define problem, diagnose causes, make moral judgments, and suggest remedies. Analytical, manipulation is framed as follows: a) manipulation is defined as influencing persuasive intervention, b) manipulation illicit causes consists of interests regarding the "other"; persuasive joints of manipulation are mostly unethical and consist of induction of toxic opinions, attitudes and behaviors; there are two remedies for manipulation: refusal manipulation and detection plus annihilation of manipulation. However, design the fundamental features of manipulation over raster of principles of the Communication Law. It is found that the manipulation violates the following principles of Communication Law: the principle of accountability and responsibility, the principle of truth, the principle of good faith, the principle of impartiality and objectivity.