Vol 8, No 1

Table of Contents


Oral Health Knowledge and Dental Visits in Community Living Older Adults in Rural Appalachia-West Virginia: A Cross-Sectional Analysis PDF
R. Constance Wiener, Alcinda Trickett Shockey

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between oral health knowledge and dental visits of older adults in an Appalachian county.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used.  Surveys were returned from 205 older adults (50 years and above) from an Appalachian county.  Questions were asked about oral health, last dental visit and sociodemographics.

Results: The variable of interest, oral health knowledge, was associated with dental visit.  Having low oral health knowledge increased odds of having delayed a dental visit beyond a year (unadjusted odds ratio: 2.99; 95% Confidence interval: 1.70, 5.28).  Even after considering the number of existing teeth, and controlling for age, sex, education and smoking, the association remained positive and independently significant (adjusted odds ratio: 2.25; 95% Confidence interval: 1.05, 4.82).  Education was the only sociodemographic variable associated with last dental visit

Conclusion: The surveyed older adults have a need for increasing dental visits within the previous year.  Increasing dental knowledge was associated with odds of increased dental visits.  Improving dental knowledge may be a strategy to improve the number of older adults having a dental visit within the year.

Horizon of Influence PDF
Max G. Craig
The research explores the influence phenomenon as part of persuasion activity. It emphasizes that among the procedures of persuasion, the influencing activities are predominant. Results that attempts to influence certain target-groups and public opinion may be detected in all fields. It cannot be affirmed that someone is the main promoters of the undertakings of influence. However, it may be asserted that people has lost innocence a long time ago and for good, regarding the intentions of persuasive influence. The army and special services have lost their monopoly. Infuse of the persuasion has engaged on the market of influence with an outstanding force. Important parts of our opinions on social problems and daily expenditures are oriented by the social products funded by groups of interests operating by means of intermediaries.

Factors Affecting the Adoption of Electronic Customer Relationship Management Information Systems in SMEs PDF
Charles Olupot, Mayoka G. Kituyi, Jose Noguera

The recent global recession has pushed businesses to search for means to efficiently and effectively manage their customers so as to remain competitive. This has led to the rise in the adoption and use of information technology in different business functions. These developments have yielded into the adoption of Electronic Customer Relationship Management. However, as this technology sees more prominence in the developed countries, many organizations in developing countries are finding it difficult to implement. This study was intended to examine the factors that affect the adoption of Electronic Customer Relationship Management in developing countries. A case study was conducted in Uganda, in which 150 Small and Medium-sized Enterprises where purposively selected from 30 districts to participate in the study. A sample size of 450 was taken from these organizations. Self administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Te data were coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Findings indicate that although Electronic Customer Relationship Management was very beneficial in promoting Small and Medium Enterprises' new products, marketing existing products, keeping their customers updated and sharing information, most Small and Medium Enterprises faced challenges in adopting the technology. The main challenges were highlighted as lack of knowledge about the Electronic Customer Relationship Management, lack of Information Communication Technology skills, poor infrastructure, lack of top management support and resistance to change. The study gives some recommendations for better adoption of Electronic Customer Relationship Management in Small and Medium Enterprises.

Dividends of Democracy in Nigeria (1999-2010): The Paradox and Need for a Re-Focus PDF
Ndifreke S. Umo-Udo
This paper takes a critical look at the notion in which different programmes, polices and projects being undertaken by government for the welfare of the citizens are being presented under the guise of dividends of democracy. The paper notes that what should actually constitute the basis for determining democracy dividends must be based on the extent to which power is being exercised by the people, through their ability to elect those that will govern them, and their ability to affect the different programmes and polices of government through their active involvement in binding decision making. It argues that democracy and political participation must extend beyond voting rights alone to include other things such as the people's control of their leaders, their actions and the ability to contribute in the process of governance. The paper concludes that the citizens cannot truly enjoy any meaningful dividends of democracy except through popular participation and the consent of the people. It also recommends among other things for the implementation of the Justice Uwais report on electoral reforms and the institution of the referendum to allow the citizens to subject major polices and issues to popular vote and contribution by the citizens.

Rampant Sexual Intercourse among Female Undergraduates in Nigeria and Induced-Abortion Related Morbidity PDF
Bamidele Omotunde Alabi
Adolescent sexuality and reproductive health behaviour has stimulated the fascination of many researchers latterly, as unintended/unwanted pregnancy, induced abortion and post-abortion complications, particularly among university students and students of other institutions of higher learning have become major concerns. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual activity, level of awareness, attitude and practice of contraception, incidence of unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion among female university students in Nigeria. The study adopted a triangulated research design and it employed the cross-sectional survey, Focus Group Discussions and In-Depth Interview methods. Structured questionnaire was used to assess the different variables of its inquiry, using the University of Lagos as its location. Female undergraduates of the institution constitute the study population. 350 questionnaires were administered and only 272 were returned in good order. Analysis of data obtained showed that majority of female university students are young adults or adolescents and unmarried, but in relationships that predisposes them to sexual intercourse and other like activities. It was established that the average female student in the University of Lagos is highly active sexually and that majority of the female students are knowledgeable about contraceptives, the male condom being the most widely used.  Unprotected sexual intercourse and other unsafe sexual activities are not very popular among them while incidences of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and post-abortion complications were not found to be prevalent relative to their level of sexual activities. It was established that post-abortion complication is not significantly determined by the method used.

A Phonological Comparison of Shona and Chinese Names Transliteration PDF
Herbert Mushangwe, Amanda Madzokere

This research is a phonological comparison of Chinese and Shona names. The research shows that Chinese names are structurally different from Shona names because when calling Chinese names both the given names and surnames are normally combined. It was noted that Chinese names can only be disyllabic or trisyllabic while Shona given names and surnames are at least quadrisyllabic or more.  PRAAT software was used to analyze Shona tone patterns and it was shown that Shona names follow a predictable high to low tone pattern which differs from tones in Chinese names which are not predictable. Since Chinese language has four tones while Shona language has two tones only it was predicted that name distortion is unavoidable when people from these two cultures transliterate foreign names. It was suggested that more researches should be done to explore the actual impact of name distortion in these two cultures.

The Cost of Accommodation, Internal Migration and Development: An Empirical Analysis of Bolgatanga Housing Market PDF
Nicholas Awuse, Patrick Tandoh-Offin

A recent price hikes in accommodation and building materials such as cement, iron rods, wood, nails, cost of labour and volatility in macroeconomic indicators in Ghana recently and in Bolgatanga in particular is likely to cause privileged accommodation price unpredictability, an important factor of default and the downward payment of housing loans (Miles, 2008). Critical analysis indicates that a significant increase in the cost of accommodation or leasing has the prospective to cause accommodation price move violently. The contented accommodation price is likely to jeopardize the immovability of the region's true cost-cutting measure.

Accommodation price increases in Bolgatanga is a recent phenomenon which occurred at the beginning of 2000s charging Ghc 60 per room per month ($22). In Bolgatanga, accommodation prices is greater than before completely owing to the deregulation of Ghana's housing market in the 2000s, and specifically when government fail to consign more funds for the safeguarding of existing housing facilities  and putting more as a result of gigantic growth in population and its associated movements. In Bolgatanga specifically, the price of accommodation in 2014 is Ghc 180 per month ($63) Us dollars.  The major increase in the cost of accommodation in Bolgatanga possibly will have cause house price volatility conflict, consequently endangering the firmness of the housing market and thereby the overall Ghanaian economy.

This study examines whether excessive accommodation price existed in the Bolgatanga housing market from 2000 to 2014, using economic most important variables such as interest rates, inflation, and cost of supply of raw materials. The results of the study revealed that in Bolgatanga accommodation price guide was substantially larger than the symmetry value, based on the relative economic elementary variables (income, inflation, interest rate and construction cost) during 2000 to 2014.

The Elite Factor in Nigeria's Political-Power Dynamics PDF
Tola Odubajo, Bamidele Alabi

One of the fundamental challenges of managing heterogeneous states is concerned with the provision of adequate political-power process. African states have had to contend with this fact since independence, and even more so in the post-independence era. In all this, there are specific cleavages forming the fulcrum of dissension among critical stakeholders. This work is beaming the searchlight on inter social-class relations. The work therefore focuses on the elite class, which by virtue of the capitalist orientation of the state holds the ace in determining political-power dynamics in Nigeria.

A historical perspective of the Nigerian state is undertaken to show that the departing colonialists had provided the foundational structure upon which political-power dynamics would be a straight-fight between the various centres of elite domination. A change from status quo would warrant a transformation of the existing socio-political order through a revolution. A change that would involve the critical mass not just as being legitimizing the activities of the elite, but being possibly part of the beneficiary of the political power dynamics. In understanding the basis of elite domination, it is pertinent to discus social class-formation, a la capitalist mode of production. This would expose us to the role of the elites in political power dynamics, and how its stronghold on power has been legitimized and consolidated through liberal democracy.

A Positive Theory of Stereotyping and Stereotypes: Is Stereotyping Useful? PDF
Donovan A. McFarlane
This paper represents a "developing" perspective on stereotyping and stereotypes. The paper briefly introduces a less popular and potentially new theory or perspective on stereotyping, a process or social phenomenon often seen as a highly undesirable and negative in modern society. The author cites cultural dimension theory, socialization, social learning, cultural syncretism, and other sociological and behavioral processes and theories as having both elements and bases for stereotyping and stereotypes. The author agues that these processes by their very nature make stereotyping natural, if not a legitimate rationale approach to human relationships, interaction, and communication in the process of knowing each other as well as self more fully. This perspective does not underscore the negative aspects and consequences of stereotyping and stereotypes as we have come to know them in our modern society and everyday living. The author also proposes a Social Competitive Theory of Stereotypes to further explain the "usefulness" from a Darwinian and materially oriented Malthusian perspective - resources competition makes stereotyping a necessity. The author recommends further consideration on the views presented in this paper, and if possible, further research into the positive perspective or view of stereotyping and stereotypes as serving an important social function.

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