Vol 4, No 2

Table of Contents


The Link between Gold Price, Oil Price and Islamic Stock Market: Experience from Malaysia PDF
Mohd Yahya Mohd Hussin, Fidlizan Muhammad, Azila Abdul Razak, Gan Pei Tha, Nurfakhzan Marwan

This research will focus on the relationship between strategic commodities (namely oil and gold prices) and the Islamic stock market in Malaysia. The objective of this research is to analyze the dynamic effects of oil price and gold price changes on the Islamic stock market in Malaysia using an estimation of the Vector Auto Regression (VAR) method. The variables involved in this research are Crude Oil Price (COP), Kijang Gold Price (KGP), and FTSE Bursa Malaysia Emas Shariah Index (FBMES). Using data covering the period from January 2007 to December 2011, the study applies the co-integration analysis, Granger causality test, Impulse Response Function (IRF) and Variance Decomposition (VDC) analysis. The findings show that Islamic stock returns were not co-integrated with strategic commodities in the long run. From the Granger causality viewpoint, it was observed that there was a bi-directional causality relationship between Islamic stock returns with oil prices. On the other hand, the FBMES was not affected by the gold prices or vice versa. Therefore, it can be concluded that, among strategic commodities, only oil’s price variables will affect the Islamic stock return in the short run in Malaysia. This proves that the Kijang Gold Price is not a valid variable for the purpose of predicting changes in Islamic share prices.

A Critique of the Contributions of Linguistic, Psychological, Sociological and Pedagogical Principles to the Development of Applied Linguistics in Nigeria PDF
Oluwatoyin F. Odedeji

Language is central to the development and integration of any nation. Applied linguistics is essential because, as an interdisciplinary field, it identifies, examines and recommends solutions to language-related existential challenges. Historically, development of Applied Linguistics in Nigeria has been influenced by linguistic, psychological, sociological and pedagogical concepts or principles. This paper has therefore, carried out a critique of the contributions of these principles to the development of language in Nigeria. Some recommendations have also been made toward an improved concepts and practice of English in the teaching-learning process, taking into account the historical and current linguistic contexts of Nigeria.

African Religion and Environmental Dynamics: Implications for Human and Sustainable Development PDF
Kehinde E. Obasola

The environmental crisis now encompasses the entire earth. Strangely enough, although the destruction of the sacred quality of nature by modern man dominated by a secularist perspective is directly responsible for this catastrophe, the vast majority of the human species, whether participating directly or indirectly in the havoc wreaked upon the natural environment, still lives within a worldview dominated by religion. The role of religion in the solution of the existing crisis between man and nature is therefore crucial. Furthermore, any discussion of religion and the order of nature, which is interested in healing the wounds of the earth and ameliorating the existing crisis now threatening man's terrestrial existence, cannot but take place on a global scale. In the same vein, there is the recognition that the earth is in danger from human activity and use and changes need to be made in order to sustain life on the earth. Most if not all of the environmental crises are caused by “human carelessness and greedâ€.
It is expedient to state that the environmental issue has a dimension which often times have been neglected and that by virtue of the fact that there are no enabling laws or affirmative actions by both the government and the people. If the issue of human right is taken seriously, it has a way it can impact positively on the environment and this will engender positive development.

The Study of Comparison between English Language and Mathematical Language PDF
Fuxia Li, Lidong Wang

The development of comparative linguistics has always been pushed ahead by the teaching of English. Based on the basic principles of applied linguistics, this paper, initiated by the needs of English teaching and learning, illustrates the feasibility and significance of comparison between English language and mathematics language and explores the similarities between the learning methods of English and mathematics. We shall provide a comparative investigation of English study and mathematical thinking, trying to give some efficient methods for studying and teaching English.

Phenomenological Psychology as an Intelligence Tradecraft for the Church Ministering to Her Religious Neighbours in Nigeria PDF
Stephen Oladele Ayankeye

It is common knowledge that Africa  as a developing continent has a lot to grapple with in the bid to making life bearable for the citizens socially, economically, and technologically. Intelligence and security reports have continually indicated that some countries in the continent are still confronted with inter-religious crises. Nigeria is one of such countries which continually wallow in inter-religious upheavals. The key religious neighbours who are regularly at one another’s throat are Christians and Muslims. Yet, the Church needs to minister to the world as mandated by Jesus Christ, the head of the Church. This paper has therefore, examined the nature and ministry of the Church, and the way the Church has faced persecution. Strategies for cordial relationship  between Christians and Muslims in Nigeria are thereby recommended from a phenomenological psychological point of view as a tradecraft. Key among the recommendations is that the image of God in all human beings should be given prime of place while ministering to religious neighbours or handling religious differences.

The Effectiveness of Two Psycho-Social Behavioural Interventions on Adolescents’ Bullying Behaviour among Nigerian Adolescents PDF
George EWENIYI, Ayodele. O. ADEOYE, Kolawole Olanrewaju AYODELE, I Raheem Adebayo

Bullying constitutes a significant threat to the mental, social and physical wellbeing of school children. As an old phenomenon and worldwide problem, it has defied several efforts to curb it. This study examined the influence of class types and religions on the effects of Contingency Management and Cognitive self-instruction on bullying behaviour among secondary school students in Ogun state, Nigeria. The population for the study consisted of bullies in public secondary schools in Nigeria schools. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select three schools while purposive sampling was used to select the participants. The study adopted a 3x2x2 pre-test and post test experimental research design consisting of two treatment groups and one control group.  Each of this group has 40 participants each, while six participants did not complete the study.   Adolescent Peer Relation Inventory (APRI) was the instrument used for data collection and a total number of one hundred and fourteen students fully participated. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse the three hypotheses formulated at the 0.05 level of significance. Results revealed a significant effect of Cognitive self-instruction, Contingency Management on bullying behaviour (F2, 101 = 6.444: p<0.05). Cognitive self – instruction was found to be more effective (MD = 7.754) than Contingency Management (MD = 5.503).The study also revealed that the combination of class type and religions of the students did not interact with the effect of the two treatments (F(2,101) = 2.379; p > 0.05) did not affect bullying behaviour. Lastly, religion and class type collectively (F(1,101) = .0.04; p > 0.05) did not affect bullying behaviour. Based on these findings, it was recommended that psychologists, counsellors, parents, teachers and social workers should use these treatment packages in controlling bullying behaviour among secondary schools students. Also, the government should sponsor seminars/workshops for school counsellors and educational psychologists on how to use Cognitive self-instruction and Contingency Management techniques in controlling bullying behaviour. Finally, government can make a policy that each school (Private and Public) should have a counsellor in the school so as to check it among students.

An Evolutionary Account of Cyclic Shifts in Women’s Mate Preferences PDF
Seungbae Park
According to some psychological studies, women approaching ovulation feel the increased desire to have short-term sexual affairs with “sexy cads†while they are in long-term relations with “good dads.†I argue that this psychological property is a vestige of our evolutionary history. Early hominid females occasionally acquired good genes from top-ranking males while they were in long-term relations with low-ranking males. The Paleolithic living conditions indicate that women with the foregoing psychological trait were more likely to have viable children than those without it. Sexy cads are the descendents of the top-ranking males, and good dads are the descendents of the low-ranking males. Sexy cads and good dads will continue to coexist in the future, developing better methods to detect cheaters and to escape detection.

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