Vol 12, No 1

Table of Contents

  1. Research Article
    Insights into Social and Institutional Innovations for Enhancing Energy Decentralisation and Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries PDF
    Dumisani Chirambo
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require state and non-state actors to reduce the vulnerability of communities to climate related extreme events, and other economic, social and environmental shocks; and for universal access to modern energy by 2030. Achieving this will require implementing new radical approaches to accelerate decen¬tralised energy services provision. Through an analysis of data from various research articles, policy briefs and project reports, the paper discovered that polycentric governance systems can enhance Africa's renewable energy institutional capacity and create new social systems to facilitate successful climate change mitigation and energy transitions for universal energy access. Moreover, despite the presence on various climate finance mechanisms to promote transitions towards low carbon development, in the absence of restrictive supply-side policy instruments targeting fossil fuels, Africa will be locked-in fossil fuel energy supply systems rather than directly leapfrogging from little or no energy infrastructure directly to low carbon energy supply systems.

  2. Research Article
    2019 Elections: Nigeria Annus Mirabilis PDF
    Etim Okon Frank
    Nigeria had long subscribed to the principles of "˜First-Past-the-Post' (FPTP) or "˜Plurality-Majority system in the declaration of election results since independence, which means "˜simple majority. The conduct of the Independent National Electoral Commission, in Osun 2018, has serious implications for 2019 elections, should they repeat their act in 2019 elections. This is what this study examined with its consequences for 2019 elections. The approach of the study was descriptive which sought to state the current status of the situation, explain and the processes of FPTP as against its application in Osun by INEC. It submitted that in a contest of many people as in Osun 2018, the one that obtains a simple majority, or who embraced the tape first is often declared the winner. It adopted the "˜Relative Deprivation and Impetus to Violence' paradigm as espoused by Robert Ted Gurr (1974) in the work "˜Why Men Rebel' as a framework of analysis. It then averred that the wrongful application of the principles of FPTP in 2019 Elections would; relatively deprive the winners and their associated supporters of the benefits thereto, thereby creating "˜frustration' on all those who had voted in that direction. The result of this would be translated into "˜aggressive dispositions' to defend their victory, hence, leading to attack on objects representing those who frustrated the values which would have accrued. This may turn out to be Nigeria's "˜years of unforgettable events "˜Annus Mirabilis'. The study revealed that the Electoral Management body should be impartial in applying the principles of FPTP as this was not the case in Osun 2018. It proposed that INEC should not introduce any guidelines which were unknown to the contestants into the result declaration processes, to deny the winners of their victory, this is likely to precipitate negative or positive consequences in 2019. It the cautioned the EMB that any use of "˜incident form' would amount to electoral fraud.

  3. Research Article
    Solar PV Transfer Strategy in Malawi for Sustainability PDF-V2
    Arnold Mwanapwa Juma, Isaac Chitedze, Khaldoon A. Mourad
    This paper aimed at developing a sustainable strategy for the transfer of solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies to the rural areas in Malawi. The paper evaluated two strategies used to transfer solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies to rural Malawi namely the centralised systems strategy and the decentralised systems strategy. More attention was paid to analysing the PV transfer strategies in terms of management, financing, community participation, skills transfer, and marketing systems. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect the needed data. The study has revealed that the centralised systems strategy, which is based on solar villages, is unsustainable. On the other hand, the decentralised systems strategy, which promotes small-systems, has potential to be sustainable as long as the systems are not given out to the people as donations. Therefore, a new sustainable policy strategy, for the transfer of solar PV technologies to the rural areas in Malawi, named ‘the commercialisation and entrepreneurship development strategy’ was suggested.

  4. Research Article
    Pollution and the Urban Aesthetics in the Industrial Districts of Lagos, Nigeria; Any Correlation? PDF
    Adejompo Fagbohunka
    The paper examines the reciprocal tendencies between the environmental pollution and the urban aesthetics in the industrial districts of Lagos, Nigeria. A total of two hundred and forty questionnaires were randomly administered in twelve industrial districts of the Lagos region. Data were descriptively and inferentially analyzed. Also, secondary sources of data were adopted. The study posits that urban aesthetics could be understood from the perspective of industrial pollution. The paper reveals the following types of pollution as potent and influencing on the urban aesthetics; air, water and land pollution. The research bewrays the pertinence of the following indices to urban aesthetics; clean water and air, infrastructures, housing, health and sanitary environment. The canonical correlation analysis between the industrial pollution and the urban aesthetics revealed a value 3.6358 which was significant at 0.05 levels. The paper recommends a massive public enlightenment campaign to educate the masses; especially the entrepreneurs on the essence of curtailing pollution; while developmental activities should be carried out in a way that will make the cities livable and sustain urban aesthetics. Finally governments should strictly enforce the environmental laws.