Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability

Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes papers in all aspects of agriculture and sustainability, including but not limited to: agricultural economics, agricultural engineering, animal science, agronomy, plant science, theoretical production ecology, horticulture, plant breeding, plant fertilization, and soil science, Aquaculture, Biological engineering, Environmental impacts of agriculture and forestry, Food science, Husbandry, Irrigation and water management, Land use, Waste management, innovative practices, new technology, integrated Pest management, Organic and biodynamic farming, sustainable energy use, social and philosophical aspects of sustainable agriculture, linking conservation and agriculture, landscape agroecology, agriculture and global climate change, indicators of sustainability, sustainable farm policy, and future projections.

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Vol 13 (2020)

Table of Contents


Unpacking the Functionality of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKSs) in Weather Forecasting in Turwi Basin, Zimbabwe PDF
Enock C. Makwara
Turwi Basin, whose primary source of livelihood is agriculture, straddles the two contiguous districts of Bikita and Zaka, south-east Masvingo Province, southern Zimbabwe. The greater part of the basin covers a drought-prone to dry agro-ecological region. Weather forecasting and the dissemination of weather information is done by the Meteorological Services Department of Zimbabwe, however, changing weather patterns are affecting weather forecasting reliability yet there are few weather stations in the basin while few households have access to weather forecast information. Gained through a long period of observation of the environment by local people, indigenous weather forecasting knowledge is site-specific, cheap and can fill in the gap that is left by scientific forecasting. The research study sought to identify the different indigenous weather forecasting knowledge indicators used in the basin and the role IKSs play in guiding farmers in agricultural planning. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methods were used to collect primarily qualitative data which were subsequently analysed using the thematic approach. Results show that weather forecasting IKSs are well-known in the basin and a majority of the basin farmers depend on them for planning their agricultural activities. IKSs can be integrated with scientific weather forecasting to provide more accurate forecast information to the subsistence basin farmers thus helping them plan their activities and possibly improve food security therein. Validation of indigenous knowledge against scientific knowledge should be done over a long period of time. There is need to document IKS and teach it to young people as currently it is the preserve of older generation.

Soil Organic Carbon Stocks as Influenced by Topography and Vegetation Cover Types at Different Soil Depths PDF
J. Chepkemoi, R.N. Onwonga, R.N. Nyakanga

Data on soil organic carbon stock in wooded grassland is important for assessing its contribution towards offsetting greenhouse gas emissions through carbon sequestration. Understanding the effect of topography and vegetation cover types on soil organic carbon stocks is therefore essential for adopting suitable strategies for reducing greenhouse gases emissions but little has been done to ascertain this. This study was conducted during the long (LRS) and short rainy seasons (SRS) of 2016 in Ilmotiok to determine the effects of topography and vegetation cover at different depths in the wooded grasslands of Laikipia County, Kenya. Randomized completely block design was used; the main plot was topographical zones (TZ); mid slopes (MS), foot slope (FS), toe slope (TS) and subplots vegetation cover (VC); tree (T), grass (G), bare (B). Soil samples were collected to a depth of 50 cm at an interval of 10 cm using soil auger. The samples were analyzed for texture, bulk density (BD) and soil organic carbon. The bulk density was highest under FS*B at 0-10 cm with a mean of (0.88gcm-3 and 0.97 gcm-3) for LRS and SRS respectively as compared to other TZ. The lowest bulk density was observed for MS*GR at 0-10 cm (0.78 gcm-3 SRS and 0.86 gcm-3 LRS) in comparison to the other VC. Highest SOC concentration (1.21 MgHa-1 and 1.10 MgHa-1) was recorded under TS*G at 0-10 as compared to 40-50 (0.52 MgHa-1 and 0.40 MgHa-1) whereas the lowest (0.92 MgHa-1 and 0.91 MgHa-1) was recorded on MS*B at 0-10 cm and 0.39 MgHa-1 and 0.28 MgHa-1 and at 40-50 for the LRS and SRS respectively. The same trend was observed for SOCs highest (9.72 MgHa-1 and 9.90 MgHa-1) for TS*G at 0-10 cm and (5.11 MgHa-1 and 5.66 MgHa-1) at 40-50 cm and lowest under SU*B at 0-10 (7.66 and 7.11 MgHa-1.) and (3.19 and 2.60) MgHa-1 LRS and SRS respectively. The results from this study indicates that topography and vegetation cover of the wooded grassland has an influence on soil organic carbon stocks. Grass vegetation act as a sink to carbon stock therefore revegetation using grass is highly recommended.

Changes in some Soil properties, Growth and Yield of Tomato as Affected by the Application of Poultry Dropping and NPK Fertilizer on a Humid Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria PDF
Michael Rotimi Olojugba, Sajo Opeyemi
The effect of integrating poultry droppings and NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer on soil fertility and tomato yield were studied to investigate the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on soil properties, growth and yield of tomato. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments and three replicates. The experiment was conducted at the teaching and research farm of Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Nigeria between June to September in 2016 and August to November 2016. A 12m × 15m plot was demarcated for the experiment. The plot was partitioned into three blocks of 4m×15m. Each 4m×15m block was further divided into four smaller plots of 3m x 3m separated by buffer of 1.0m wide. The treatments were: Control; NPK -15-15-15 at 250kg ha-1; Poultry droppings (PD) at 5.0 t ha-1; and NPK 15-15-15 (125 kg) + PD (2.5 t) ha-1.. At four and six weeks after transplanting (WAT), height, diameter and biomass of the tomato plant were determined. At maturity (six weeks after transplanting) the weight of tomato fruit was determined. The combined NPK + PD treatment recorded the highest values for the height, diameter and biomass (fresh and dry) of the plant. The yield of tomato was also highest in the plot treated with NPK + PD. Soil properties were significantly improved by applying the treatments.  In conclusion, integrating poultry droppings and NPK 15-15-15 has more benefits over NPK or poultry droppings alone.

Impact of Reinforcing Agro Dealer Networks on Agricultural Productivity in Niger PDF
Adam Mamadou, Robert Darko Osei, Isaac Osei-Akoto
Agricultural production in Niger has been plagued with low productivity and, as such, low incomes for the majority of the country’s small-scale farmers, due largely to poor soil quality and arid climate conditions. Input-use is a crucial part of the solution to these problems. However, the rate of adoption remains low among farmers in Niger. One way in which they hoped to deal with this challenge was to train agro-dealers in three regions in Niger namely, Maradi, Tahoua and Zinder. This study sought to evaluates the effect of agro-dealer training in input use and handling, and crucial business practices, on the behaviours of the small-scale farmers that they serve. The evaluation looked at the performance of two treatment groups, who received training only or training plus demonstration, randomly assigned to agro-dealers. Though the design of the study followed a randomized phased-in approach and an IV approach in estimating the impact. The main findings of the study were Training plus demonstration plots increased adoption of improved seed, showing the added value of the demonstration component in the intervention, in encouraging seed use.

Suitability of Treated Wastewater Produced in Sudan for Irrigation Plants PDF
Abdelazim M. A. Ahmed, Mahdi Haroun, Hajo E. Elhassan, Eiman E. Diab, Abdelkarim H. Awadelkarim, Gammaa A. M. Osman
The aim of this study was to characterize the quality of treated wastewater of Soba treatment plant, in Khartoum state, in term of its potential to be used in irrigation for different plant products, as well as to study the temporal variations of its physicochemical and biological parameters. Sampling of the treated wastewater was performed during Dec. 2014 and November 2015. The parameters indicating the suitability of such wastewater for irrigation were estimated, these include pH, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Sulphate, Ammonia, Chloride as well as total count, coli from bacteria and parasites. Results showed that, significant variation in values of pH, EC. Chloride, sulphate, BOD, COD was observed throughout the months of year. In spite of variability throughout the year, the values of pH, EC, TDS chlorides and sulphate, in term of their suitability for use in irrigation, fall within the limits set by FAO for irrigation water. Concentration of total coliform and nematodes in treated wastewater, were more than the concentration limit set by WHO, for restricted irrigation, and less than the limit for unrestricted irrigation. The reuse of the treated wastewater in irrigation of non food crops could be carried out without restriction, however, regarding the use of restricted irrigation, it would be necessary to upgrade treatment processes for further reduction in some parameters, providing that, regular testing should be done regularly.

Assessing the Sustainability of Horticultural Farms in Central Senegal: An Adaptation of the IDEA Method PDF
Amy Faye, Emanuele Zucchini, Yacine Ngom, Patrizio Vignaroli, Vieri Tarchiani, Djiby Dia

This paper evaluates the sustainability of the different forms of horticulture farms (individual and collective) in the Groundnut Basin of Senegal using an adapted version of the IDEA method to the Senegal context.

Results show that collective farms have higher sustainability scores than individual farms. Also, collective farms are more sustainable in the agroecological scale while individual farms are more sustainable in the economic scale. Results also suggest that although IDEA can be adapted to both individual and collective horticulture farms of Senegal, there is a need to include a fourth scale that will integrate the institutional and organizational features of collective farms as well as the socio-political and research context that can enable or hinder the adoption of sustainable farm practices.

The Role of the Agricultural Economist in Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in the Oil Palm Industry in the Southern Nigeria PDF
Anthony C. Ojemade, Ogonna Olive Osuafor, Ebere O. Offiah
When human activities which cause climate change raise threats to the environment, the Agricultural Economist who is also a policy maker should take careful measures even if some cause and effect relationships are not established. The vulnerability of Nigerian Agricultural sector to climate change is of particular interest to policy makers in the economy accounting for higher percentage of the labour force. There are many adaptation options which can be adopted by farmers at low cost but proper estimates of adaptation cost and benefits are currently deficient due to the involvement of wrong climate change actors. As is the case with making an economic decision, the astute response by an Agricultural Economist will depend on equating and or comparing benefits and cost. When the expected benefits of adaptation are positive, the rational decision maker (the Oil Palm farmer) will take adaptive actions. Policy options in particular must become available. Climate change will almost surely make life even harder for the world’s poorest and most vulnerable Oil Palm farmer. An Agricultural Economist must play his role in reducing the society’s vulnerability to losses from climate change and avoid restricting farmers’ capacity to adapt by limiting their options. The devastating effects of climate change and the need for an integrated response requires resilient and adaptive institutions and exemplary actors like the Agricultural Economist to lead the process towards creating an enabling environment for adaptation to climate change. This paper described the potential role the Agricultural Economist can play in climate change adaptation, in the Oil Palm industry and aims to address the question: what policy and institutional changes are needed to encourage agricultural adaptation strategies/ practices to develop the industry and the nation as a whole. The paper concluded that advances in understanding of climate change adaptation can come from collection of better data, development of new methods and models, observation of changes in climate and its effects, by an Agricultural Economist in order to accommodate new dimensions brought about by climate change.

First Report for Pathogenity of Cydia Pomonella Granulovirus and Helicoverpa Armigera Nucleopolyhedrovirus to Indian Meal Moth Plodia Interpunctella Hϋbner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Vitro PDF
V. Mpalkamou, A. Foteinopoulou, A. Ntoukas, I. Zampara, I. Lagogiannis, S. Mantzoukas
The purpose of this study was to examine the for the first time the effect of Cydia pomonella granulovirus and Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus on the larvae of the Lepidopteran Plodia interpunctella. L3 larvae were tested to see whether they were influenced by the infection of the two entomopathogenic viruses Cydia pomonella granulovirus and Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus. The experiment lasted seven days. The results showed that the effect of the two Baculoviruses was statistically important in relation to the control. The effect of the virus H. armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus was greater than the effect of the virus C. pomonella granulovirus, and this led us to the assumption that the use of entomopathogenic viruses can play an important role in controlling P. interpunctella larvae. The recorded mortality after 7 days was for larvae treated with C. pomonella granulovirus 33.3 to 86.7%, with H. armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus 53.3 to 93.3% and control mortality was 0.7%. This information may appear particularly useful in the future control of the insect’s populations in the warehouse.

Coordination and Supply Chain Optimization of Agricultural Products in Bangladesh under Uncertainty PDF
Mohammad Khairul Islam, Md. Mahmud Alam, Mohammed Forhad Uddin
In this study, we developed four different mathematical formulations for the coordination and three stage supply chain optimization of agricultural products in Bangladesh. This research, we assumed that the farmers-retailers-distributors are coordinated by jointly participation their information. To developed a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model and analyze the situation of inadequate production capacity for the producer as the reason for shortages. The producers will coverage these shortages by outsourcing, which decided very beginning of the SCN. This plays a very important role in deciding so as to mitigate these challenges and to extend the system performance and individual gain of the SCN. The coordinated mechanism among the participants of the market has been prominent to realize the best answer. The SCN was modeled using a formulation in MILP that maximizes the total profit and also to validate our proposed model, analyzed the total profit for real data and normal distribution data for various parameters. The formulated MILP model were solved by a mathematical programming language (AMPL) and results obtained by appropriate solver MINOS. Numerical example with the sensitivity of several parameters has been deployed to validate the models. We conclude from this study, profit of all participants increased by SCN coordination system without ant additional investment.

Divergent Cooperative Memberships. Exploring the Determinants. A Case Study of Poultry Farming Households in Southwest Nigeria PDF
David Prince Popoola
This study examines the determinants of differential cooperative membership among poultry farming households in Oyo State. A multistage sampling technique was employed to randomly select 210 poultry farmers; 101 Cooperators and 109 Non-cooperators, using well-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, T-test, Variance inflation factor, and stepwise multivariate regression are employed in data analysis. The study reveals that an ample proportion of the farmers are still within their productive age. Also, Farmers age, credit access, output level, and household non-food expenditure positively determines cooperative membership but negatively determined by paid labour, and marriage. Regarding differential cooperative memberships; formal education, age, and farm expenditure positively influences multipurpose cooperative membership but negatively influenced by gender and output level. Primary occupation, food expenditure, and paid labour, positively determined producer cooperative membership but negatively determined by farm expenditure, formal education, age, and household size while, primary occupation, and non-food expenditure positively determines marketing cooperative membership but negatively determined by paid labour, and farm expenditure. Farmers age, primary occupation, Non-food, and farming expenditure negatively determines consumer cooperative membership but positively determined by household size. Finding based policy options are inferred.

Effect of Cowdung and NPK Fertilizer on the Early Growth of Tamarindus indica. L in Kaduna Northern Guinea Savanna Eco - Zone of Nigeria PDF
A.I. Sodimu, M.B. Usman, O. Osunsina, T.A. Awobona

The experiment was conducted at the Federal College of Forestry Mechanization, Afaka-Kaduna, nursery to determine the effect of cow dung and NPK (15:15:15) fertilizers on the early growth of Tamarindus indica. Seeds of matured Tamarindus indica were collected from plus tree at Trial Afforestation Project, Afaka-Kaduna. Pre-treated with 50% of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) for 60 minutes to break the seed dormancy and sown directly in nursery pots filled with top soil, ten (10) potted seedlings were picked two (2) weeks after germination and divided into three (3) groups of Three (3) different levels (3g;6g and9g) of cowdung and NPK fertilizers. The experiment was laid out using Complete Randomized Design (CRD), ring method of fertilizers application were used.  measured include seedling height; number of leaves and seedlings diameter the data was collected at 2WBFA, 4WAFA,6WAFAand 8WAFA and subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT)at the end of the experiment the results show that application of cowdung at various doses significantly (P>0.05) yielded better growth and seedlings quality of Tamarindus indica as compared to NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer. NPK applied at 6 grams and 9 grams were significantly (P>0.05) toxic to the seedlings which led to high mortality rate after application. However, from the results obtained in this experiment it was recommended that cowdung should be utilized to make nutrient available for optimal growth of Tamarindus indica seedlings and the application of NPK fertilizers above 3g on Tamarindus indica seedlings should be discouraged.

Assessment of Yield and Nutritional Qualities of Local and Improved Maize Varieties Cultivated in Wukari and Environement of the Nigerian Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecology PDF
D. O. Ibirinde, M. N. Iliya, J. A. Nuhu, K. Balogun, L. Oladokun

Two varieties of maize (quality protein and local) were cultivated and evaluated for nutritional qualities, agronomic traits performance and yield during the 2016 and 2017 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University Wukari. Wukari is situated on latitude 70 52’17.000N and longitude 90 46’40.300E. It falls within the guinea savannah of North-eastern Nigeria with the annual rainfall of 1058mm-1300mm and relative humidity dropping to about 15%, alongside an annual temperature of 280C and 300C. Its characteristic alfisol soil is clay enriched, with subsoil that has relatively high native fertility. Pollination was controlled in order to conserve the genetic purity of the two varieties. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (at p ≤ 0.05), using the 23rd edition of SPSS. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences among the varieties for grain yield, nutritional content, days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height at six weeks after planting, number of seed rows, number of nodes, seed length, hundred seed weight (g) and ear heights. Oba super 2 showed superiority (31.75g) over the local variety for seed yield (100 seed weight). Crude protein concentration in the two varieties varied significantly, with the local maize variety recording a higher value (7.21%).

Socio-Economic Impacts of Conflicts between Farmers and Cattle Herdsmen in Rural Households of Benue State, Nigeria PDF
E.N. Mbah, R.K. Jiriko, N.E. Amah

The survey was conducted to determine socio-economic impacts of conflicts between farmers and cattle herdsmen in rural households of Benue State, Nigeria. Questionnaire/interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 118 respondents used for the study. Frequency, percentage and factor analysis were used for analyzing data collected for the study. Findings of this study indicate that major effects of conflict between farmers and cattle herdsmen on agricultural production were named socio-economic, loss of lives and property-related and shortage of food-related factors. Furthermore, the respondents revealed that the coping strategies used in avoiding conflict between farmers and cattle herdsmen were avoiding crops destruction by cattle (88.1%), strict supervision of grazing by adult herdsmen (78.8%), establishment of ranches (78.0%) and avoiding cattle rustling (78.0%). It is recommended that government at all levels (federal, state and local) should liaise with community leaders to ensure adequate security of lives and property in rural communities in order to sustain the livelihoods of the rural dwellers.

Effects of Genotype and Oviposition Time on Egg Quality Traits of Commercial Laying Birds PDF
Olawumi Simeon, Jesuyon Oluwatosin, Akinsola Kehinde, Olawumi Stephen, Amana Charles, Ahutu Ismaila, Iyaode Ifelayo, Adekunle Temitope

This study aimed at investigating the effects of strain of layers and oviposition time on external and internal egg quality traits. The strains of layers used for this study are Isa Brown (IB), Bovan Nera (BN) and Dominant Black (DB). The time of oviposition investigated are 8-10am, 10-12noon, 12-2pm and 2-4pm. Freshly laid eggs were collected from the different strains during the aforementioned periods, and were taken to the laboratory for both external and internal egg quality analysis. Analyzed results showed that egg weight was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by strain. The three strains recorded similar mean values. Similar results were reported for other traits except egg length and shell thickness where significant differences were reported among the strains. BN and IB were superior to DB in terms of shell thickness. With regard to internal egg quality traits, significant (P<0.01) differences among strains were reported only for yolk weight and albumen width. Pertaining to oviposition effect, almost all the traits were significantly influenced by oviposition time. Both external and internal egg quality traits had superior (P<0.01) and higher mean values during morning than afternoon or evening collection. This might be due to very low temperature prevailing in the former and which encouraged the birds to eat more resulting to bigger egg size and higher egg compositions. Haugh unit in this study was not significantly affected by strain and oviposition time. It is suggested than management practices in laying farm such as lighting and feeding pattern be focussed on having more eggs laid in the morning session than afternoon or evening session.


Effect of Intra-row Spacing on Growth and Yield of Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Mondial) Grown in a Sub-tropical Environment of Eswatini PDF
Kwanele A. Nxumalo, Fikile Hlanze, Michael T. Masarirambi, Paul K. Wahome

Irish potato yields vary widely, usually showing a declining trend, due to differences in in-row spacing used, as well as poor varietal selection for specific locations. In this study the growth and yield responses to different intra-row spacing on Irish potato cultivar Mondial was evaluated. The treatments consisted of four intra-rows spacing namely: 15 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm and 60 cm. Inter-row spacing was maintained at 90 cm for all treatments. Treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated four times. Measurements were taken on plant height, number of potato tubers per plant, leaf length and width and fresh weight of potato tubers. In-row spacing were significantly different at P <0.05 with 15 cm producing the highest mean height (26.90 cm) at 14 weeks after planting. The number of stems per plant were not significantly influenced (P>0.05) by the intra- row spacing. The highest number of main stems (6) was recorded at 45 cm spacing and the lowest (5) at 15 cm spacing. The number of tubers per plant were not significantly different (P>0.05) in all the intra row spacing, and 15 cm intra row spacing had the highest number of tubers. There were significant (P<0.05) differences among the different intra row spacing for yield per plot. The highest yield (6.71 t/ha) was at the 60 cm spacing and the lowest (4.87 t/ha) was at the 15cm spacing in terms of size and marketability of the tubers. Based on the findings of the study it can be concluded that intra row spacing can be chosen according to the farmer’s desired size of tuber: that is to say as the intra row spacing decreases there is also a decrease in the size of tuber produced and vice versa. These results have shown that Irish potato (cultivar Mondial) grown at the 60 cm x 90 cm intra row spacing gave the best yield results and economic yields.

Harnessing Agricultural Services Centers for Agricultural Extension Services: A case Study Gezira state-Wad Medani Great Locality, Sudan PDF
Adam Elradi M. Ali, Mohammed Adam A. Hamad, Mohamed Atta A. Abdallh, Mutasim Ali M. Elagab
Agricultural Services Centers expect to plays an important role in facilitate marketing of most agricultural commodities such as seeds, feed, fertilizers and pesticides. This paper attempts to realize the Importance of agricultural services centers in supporting agricultural extension services in the study area. The study based on two sources of data, primary and secondary, the primary quantitative and qualitative data were collected from field survey using structured questionnaire (in-depth and repeated interview) which designed and pre-tested. Fifty seven respondents (members ASCs) were randomly selected to represent the study population. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for data analysis (Descriptive Statistic) in addition to correlation and regression analysis to test significant level of variables. The findings indicated that 98% of the respondents were explained that the link with farmers was direct link, 53% stated that the farmers they visits them to get information. 90% of the respondents reported that they provided farmers with input and information, 98% of them explained that their source of inputs was imported companies, and 91% explained that their method to present the information to the farmers was personal explanation. The results of correlation and regression analysis showed Education level had high significant correlation with link with extension (.001) the value (.430), High significant correlation also with the link with extension and Components that you consider more useful in giving information sig (.000) value (.772) and the available components in case of problem sig (.000) value (.774). Imported companies had significant regression value (.457 beta) (.042) in information exchange other partners had no significant. Conclusion: Agricultural Services Centers enhance the role of agricultural extension through marketing of most agricultural commodities. The paper recommends that the service centers workers should look after the recommended information and follow up their inputs after sailing process to the farmers, the extension view should be more than the trading view.

Development of Double Haploid Lines from F1 Cross of Yar-8 x Thee Htat Yin Genotypes through Anther Culture PDF
Hsu Yi Mon, Khin Thida Myint, Htet Aung Htut, Nyo Mar Htwe
Anther culture has become a powerful technique for the rapid production of double haploid lines in crop breeding program. The objectives of this experiment were to examine the callusing and green plant regeneration ability of parents (Yar -8 and Thee Htat Yin) and their F1, and to develop the double haploid lines from the cross of Yar-8 and Thee Htat Yin genotypes. Nitsch and Nitsch (N6) medium with 2 mg.L-12, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg.L-1 kinetin was used for callus induction and Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1 mg.L-1 Naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg.L-1 Indole 3-acetic acid, 1 mg.L-1 Indole 3-butric acid, and 2 mg.L-1 kinetin was used for green plant regeneration. Callus induction was successfully observed in both parents and their F1. Plant regeneration from regenerated callus was dependent on the genotypes. Only Yar-8 and F1 progenies produced green plants as well as albino plants. Out of total 14 plants, 10 plants were double haploid (DH) plants. These double haploid lines (DH) could be done further evaluation to develop improved rice lines in Myanmar.

Prediction of Land Use Change in Katsina-Ala through a Geospatial Approach PDF
J. A. Jande, G. N. Nsofor, M. Mohammed

The objective of this study was to quantify land use and land cover (LULC) changes and predict future urban growth in Katsina-Ala. Three Landsat satellite images TM, ETM+ and OLI for 1987, 2007 and 2017 respectively were classified using maximum likelihood classifier in Idrisi Selva to detect the land cover changes and a classification accuracy of 87.18%, 89.32%  and 91.6  for 1987, 2007 and 2017 maps was achieved . The result of the classification revealed that between 1987 and 2017, urban area increased by 80.38ha (102.17%) at the rate of 3.41%, farmland increased by 88453ha (133.56%) at the rate of 4.45% per year, forest declined by -4219ha (-5.92%) at the rate of -0.2% and grassland declined by 53656ha (-44.54%) at the rate of -1.48%. The study found that  evidence likelihood and the distance from rivers. urban areas and elevation were the most important factors shaping urban growth in Katsina-Ala. Thereafter, a Multilayer Perceptron Markov (MLP-Markov) model was used to model transition potentials of various LULC types to predict future changes in 2030. The model had a reliability of 85.8% after validation. The results of the prediction show that urban area will increase from 5.92% to 6.35% with forest declining from 10.8% to 9.46%. It reveals that Katsina-Ala will grow at the rate of 0.46%. Analysis of the prediction revealed that the rate of urban growth will continue and would certainly threaten forest areas in the area. Katsina-Ala stands the risk of extreme deforestation if appropriate measures are not taken


Mammal Richness and Diversity in Tropical Ecosystem: The Role of Protected Area in Conserving Vertebrate Fauna, Oban Hill’s Region PDF
Emmanuel Tertsea IKYAAGBA, Abideen Abiodun ALARAPE, James Kehinde OMIFOLAJI, Ikaa Johnson ULOKO, Oladuuni Saka JIMOH
Documenting the diversity and distribution of vertebrates is crucial to achieving sustainability and assists in planning for the protection and conservation strategy. We conducted a line transect via stratified distance sampling techniques to estimate the densities and diversity of forest mammal in tropical ecosystem landscape of Oban Hills Region, Cross River Park National (CRNP), Nigeria. A detection function was estimated individually for each land use types by pooling all the animal data from the transects. For fauna species, all sighting records of the two out of four land use types (core and buffer) were used because both accounted for the high significant percentage 36% core and 30% buffer of the species composition encountered in the land use types respectively. In total, core, buffer, farmfallow and plantation recorded 868, 519, 136, and 48 individuals respectively. Their individual density was estimated at 69.8km2, 64.8km2, 25.7km2 and 8.3km2 for all the land use types respectively. Core of the park accounted for the highest fauna species richness (D=4.138) and plantation recorded the least of (D=2.583). Analysis of Fauna species evenness and species diversity revealed that, farm fallow had the highest values (J´= 0.7536) and (H’= 2.55) respectively. The density in our study area are among the highest in the tropical rainforest. Our results indicate that Oban hills habour highest diversity of fauna in the region and also gives an updated account of fauna composition present in the region. Our finding conclude that core of the park is of the highest conservation value and priority should be given for its protection. The study also provides baseline data for future managing and planning of vertebrate population in the Oban region. We recommend that a biomonitoring study of mammals be initiated to help determine population trends, update species status in this biodiversity hotspot.

Land Tenure, Land Property Rights and Adoption of Bio-Fortified Cassava in Nigeria: Implication for Policy Recommendations PDF
Kolapo Adetomiwa, Abimbola Esther Iseoluwa, Omilaju Samuel Babatunde

The study investigated land tenure, land right and rental system as it relates to adoption of bio-fortified cassava in Nigeria. The study was conducted in three states in Nigeria where bio-fortified cassava technology was first released in Nigeria including Oyo, Benue and Akwa-ibom. Multistage sampling techniques was used to select 360 bio-fortified cassava farmers. Descriptive statistics, t-test and cragg’s double hurdle model were used to analyzed the data collected. The result of the study showed that the mean age of the farmers was 48(±11.36). The land tenure system practiced in the bio-fortified cassava producing areas in Nigeria is governed by inheritance (23%), purchasing (19.7), gifting (31.7) with temporary arrangements through rentals (25.6%). The tenant bio-fortified cassava farmers pay about ₦31,000 per acre per year in land for cash agreement or 4-7% of the actual yield of the bio-fortified cassava in land for cassava outputs agreements. However, this agreement between the landlords and tenant bio-fortified cassava farmers were verbal where both parties try as much as possible to honor the agreements. Variables such as access to credit, landownership status, access to bio-fortified cassava stems and extension contacts influenced the decision to adopt bio-fortified cassava technology while age, perception and training influenced the intensity of adoption of bio-fortified cassava technology. The result of the t-test analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the farm sizes (34739.467 at 1%) and yields (0.593 at 1%) of the landlords and tenant bio-fortified cassava farmers. The findings of the study indicated that tenant bio-fortified cassava farmers were being faced with the problem of insecure land access, thus the need to implement policies that will increase access to land resources among the tenant farmers in Nigeria.

Impact Assessment of Fadama III Group Participation on Food Security Status of Rural Households in South West, Nigeria PDF
Kolapo Adetomiwa, Ologundudu Oluwatoyin Mayowa, Adekunle Ibrahim Adebayo, Ogunyemi Olamide Victor

One of the major challenges facing Nigeria is food insecurity which has deprived her citizens of meeting up their daily dietary energy supplies in the time past. Fadama III program was set up and implemented to curb these challenges. However, this study empirically examined the impact of the Fadama III group participation program on food security status of the rural households in South West, Nigeria. A total of 600 respondents were sampled. Primary data were used for the study which was collected through a well-structured and pretested questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Probit regression, Food security index and double-hurdle model. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that the mean age of the participant and non-participant was 46±16.25 and 46±16.17 respectively. About 46.1% and 23.6% of the participants of Fadama III program in South West Nigeria were involved in crop production and livestock production respectively. The decision to participate in Fadama III program in South West Nigeria was significantly influenced by gender (p<0.10), occupation (p<0.01), extension contacts (p<0.01) and awareness (p<0.05). Based on the food security line created, majority (84.3%) of the participants of Fadama III program were food secure as against 42% of the non-participants that were food secure. The result of the probit regression (first hurdle) showed that gender, farm size, non-farm income, membership in association and income from Fadama III program were significant positive determinants of food security status of participants of Fadama III program while gender and non-farm income were significant positive determinants of food security status of non-participants in South West, Nigeria where household size was a negative significant determinant. The result of truncated regression(second hurdle)also showed that the estimated coefficient of correlation between the selection equation (determinant function) and the outcome equation (per capital expenditure function) of 0.129 for participants of Fadama III program is positive and significant at 1% which implies that participants in Fadama III program have higher capital consumption expenditure than random household sample. Since participation in Fadama III program leads to increased food security status, such community developmental program should be designed in the future in such a way that it will accommodate a large number of potential farmers so as to improve their wellbeing and food security.

Socio-Economic Conditions of Traders and Decision of Work Participation: A Case Study from Rural India PDF
Mohammad Muqeet Khan, Tanveer Asif

This paper analyse the role of socio-economic condition of traders in the decision of work participation in different rural markets. Moreover, the travelling behavioral pattern of traders for visiting a particular market has also been assessed for the nature and causes of their spatial movement. The study is based on primary data collected through field survey in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Thirty one rural markets have been undertaken for the detailed field work, whereas, fifty per cent traders from each selected rural markets were interviewed. The participation and proportion of traders in different rural markets has been decided by their prevailing socio-economic characteristics. Traders belonging to socially and economically lower strata are represented in higher proportion in the rural markets.

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