Vol 9, No 1

Table of Contents

Articles

The Effect of Media as a Tool of Popular Culture on Crime PDF
Mehmet Şükrü NAR
One of the important factors directing social life within popular culture is media and its tools. Nowadays, popular culture elements rather contain violence. For example, the fact that media often broadcast programs, news or movies with violent content creates a social environment in which violence is taught and consumed. Today, significant developments especially in the mass media devices have made it easier to access information and enabled the spread of information globally. But, these changes in the global World have also brought discussions about to what extend media directs violence within the increasing violence events recently. This study has tried to analyze the effect of media on violence theoretically.

A Study of Instructional Psychology on Grammar-Translation Method from Chinese I-Ching PDF
Ching-Chung Guey
This paper provides a different perspective on Instructional Psychology from Chinese I-Ching, using the Grammar-Translation Method (GTM) as an example, seeking to answer 3 questions regarding GTM. This paper starts with the analysis of grammar translation method in terms of six variables involved in instructional settings: teacher, student, objective, assessment, material, and methodology. In each of the variable there are two contrastive components that can be specified as yin and yang in the framework of Chinese I-Ching. From the framework of I-Ching, GTM features its six yaos as “Heaven” gua, where all the six yaos are “yin,” (teacher: teacher centered-yin, methodology: behavioral-yin, assessment: product-yin, objective: information-yin), material: rote memory-yin, and student: passive-yin). This model proposes feasible measures on the bases of the dynamics involved in the hexagram to help learners’ reach optimal learning outcomes. As I-Ching was originally developed as a qualitative description, analysis, and prediction of daily events, quantitative surveys with reference to accuracy of predictions from I-Ching requires more empirical studies.

Near-Death-Experiences: Between Spiritual Transmigration and Psychopathological Hallucinations PDF
Erich Kasten, Jens-Stefan Geier
The research in the field of Near-Death-Experiences (NDE) shows us various reports of the process of dying which contradict the widely shared medical opinions in the past. Based on these observations, Raymond Moody developed and differentiated specific stages in the process of dying. Although these stages cannot be empirically proven, for some of the described stages scientific explanations can be found. For example, NDE have been reported in the terminal phase of life-threatening diseases, which can be explained by neurobiological changes of transmitter substances in dying person’s brains. Further explanatory models fall back on other influences, e.g. side effects of sedative medication, psychedelic drugs, meditation, epilepsy, migraine or oneiroid psychosis. The large number of different visual experiences (tunnel vision, encounter with close relatives, bright lights, God, flowering gardens etc.) which appear in the course of a NDE, can be interpreted as visual hallucinations or oneiroid dreams as a consequence of medication or endogenous opioid production; in addition, a genetic predisposition could play an essential role. A NDE possibly is a final protective mechanism of the brain in agonizing patients, which leads to feelings of euphoria and experiences of hallucinations, caused by the explosive release of neurotransmitters. Positive emphasis should be given to the fact that in periods of increasing secularization the investigations of NDE have provided new hope of a life after death in the past 30 years. For many patients, caregivers, physicians and nurses, Moody’s book was a great help in overcoming fears of dying and death. In spite of all legitimate criticism, the “nine elements of the Near-Death Experiences”, still inspires researchers to have a different look on the process of dying.

Business Ethics in Islam: Assessing Traders’ Understanding of Islamic Work Ethics; Perspectives of Muslim Market Women in Kumasi Central Market, Ghana PDF
Emmanuel Yeboah-Assiamah
The study aimed at assessing Muslim traders’ understanding of Islamic Work Ethics (IWE) using perspectives from Muslim Market Women in the Kumasi Central Market in Ghana. Being an exploratory study, the purposive sampling technique was adopted to select nineteen (19) respondents to be interviewed using the one-on-one in-depth interview instrument. The participants involved twelve (12) Islam Women Traders, five (5) regular customers of the traders and two (2) Muslim Religious Leaders. The study found out that the main Islam ethical teachings for Islam traders include Sincerity, honesty, humility, fairness in pricing, truthfulness, love for customers and fellow traders. The study concludes that Islamic Women traders in the Kumasi Central Market do have fair understanding of Islamic Work Ethics. A major recommendation this study makes is to encourage a methodical training and education of Muslim Women on the accepted trading ethics and standards enshrined in Islam. The focus of these trainings should be on the rationale for the principles and consequences for non-abiders. Again, the study recommends for the formation of women groups which could serve as a springboard for inviting Islam religious leaders to encourage and assist them through seminar and educative programmes. Further studies on the phenomenon should assess the impact of knowledge of these ethical principles on the trading behaviors of Islamic Women Traders in the Kumasi Central Market.

Determinants of Households’ Income Poverty in the South-South Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria PDF
Samuel Gowon Edoumiekumo, Tamarauntari Moses Karimo, Stephen S. Tombofa
This paper analyzed income poverty in the south-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria using the FGT model and a logit regression on the 2009-10 National Living Standard Survey data. Zonal level results showed 0.4924, 0.203 and 0.113 poverty incidence, gap and severity respectively. Poverty incidence in Delta and Edo States were fairly higher than the zonal average while those of the other states were marginally less than the zonal average.  While rural share of poverty was 82%, urban share was a meager 18%. Contrary to a widely held view this study showed that male contributed more (91.56%) to poverty than female (8.44%) in the zone. The agricultural sector had a share of 74.75%. This study recommended that poverty reduction efforts should aim at providing rural households equal opportunity to achieve their potentials not minding the state of residence.

Art as an Experience of Cognition of the Other and Self-Cognition PDF
Elena V. Ryaguzova
The paper outlines theoretical reflection of art as an experience world that proves that art helps to understand Other and see oneself in various discourses. Art reveals essential characteristics of Other, broadens axiological horizons of reflexive field of a subject’s experience and designs a new identity model through communicative practices. The results of original empirical research are presented. The research was conducted by surveying and testing on a sample consisting of 100 people. It is argued that through the art of man to know the world in its totality and diversity sets polylogical connection with Other, enters into dialogue with himself/herself, pushes the boundaries of everyday life and design a new model of identity, value-rich, semantic and moral and ethical dimensions. It is revealed that the evaluation of own qualities and quality of Other causes and dynamics of the processes of self-understanding of self-identity.

A Stylistic Analysis on “I Have A Dream” PDF
Shaohui Zheng
Based on the theories and approaches typified by Leech and Short, this paper makes a comprehensive stylistic analysis of the speech “I Have a Dream” made by Martin Luther King with an attempt to find out how King makes his speech a remarkable delivery and how the style of the speech addresses his tone, attitude and intention, which can provide some implications for pedagogical application and enrich the techniques in English writing and making speeches.

Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Pre-Colonial Igbo Society of Nigeria PDF
Francisca Akunna Ezenwoko, Joseph Inegbenebho Osagie

This paper examines conflict and conflict resolution among the Igbo of Nigeria in pre-colonial period. Conflicts have always been part of human societies. So long as there is interaction amongst individuals or societies, there are bound to be conflicts as a result of fact that interests among individuals and societies interest vary. In pre-colonial Igbo society, various types of conflicts manifested. These included inter-personal, intra-community and inter-community conflicts, some of which led to wars. However, there were various means by which these conflicts were resolved to the satisfaction of the warring parties.

Conflict resolution mechanism was an integral part of pre-colonial Igbo village democracy. The absence of a centralized system of government among the people in pre-colonial period did not mean that the people were in a state of anarchy. As in most pre-colonial African societies, there were bound to be conflicts amongst individuals and communities but there also existed traditional methods by which they were resolved to ensure that peace and order were achieved and maintained in the society.  It is however hopes that the lessons to be learn from the findings of this paper, if properly applied, would be of great benefit to those who are charged with the responsibilities of finding amicable resolutions to the various intra and inter ethnic as well as sectarian crises presently ravaging various parts of the Nigeria and African continent in general.



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