Vol 3, No 2

Table of Contents


Urban Weakness and Security in Africa PDF
Arinze Ngwube

In the 21st century one has witnessed the rate of urban movement which is attributed to many reasons such as social amenities, quest for good education and employment opportunities. However these factors are not peculiar to a particular country, but to the rest of the world .At present one has witnessed in the urban areas lack of social amenities, particularly in Africa. In the rural area there is epileptic power supply compare to the urban area. People need electricity for survival and this is responsible for relocation to the urban area. The same can be said about health care also, there are fewer numbers of hospitals and personnel in the rural areas. These makes access to health facilities difficult. As a result of this most people move to the urban cities. Another reason why people move from rural to urban is the quest for good education. In the rural area there are fewer no of schools and teachers, compare to urban area. The effect of these problems is that people tend to move from rural area to urban area; however it has not solved the problem of the urban area in terms of development.

These can be traced to urban weakness relating to weak and illegitimate governance, limited livelihood opportunities and legal structures that affect land tenure and new business startup .The antidote to Africa’s urban weakness cannot rely on security structures but must be part of a broader development strategy.

The Challenges Facing Democratic Consolidation in the Democratic Republic of Congo PDF
Arinze Ngwube

Certainly, African countries are a long way from the predominance of cross-cutting cleavages and civic virtue that characterize such a civic community at any national level. This predominance would demand a transformation of political culture and an enormous accumulation of social capital in the form of these cross-cutting, civically engaged organizations. Nevertheless, in Africa, especially in the DRC, a potentially historic and profound process of change is underway. If this trend is nurtured, through the types of institutional reforms and external assistance, it could put a number of African countries firmly on the path to democracy, development, and political stability. And this success story would become a model for other countries, as they have in Asia and Latin America. Here lies the necessity for research on “challenges to democratic consolidation “as Africa countries stumble on this long road to democratization and consolidation.

Using mainly secondary sources and general observation method, the paper examines the challenges facing the democratic consolidation in the Democratic Republic of Congo and will recommend solutions.

Attitude of Parents in the Metropolis of Lagos towards Inclusion of Sexuality Education in the School Curriculum PDF
Oluyemi Adetunji Stephens
The study investigated the attitude of parents in the metropolis of Lagos towards the inclusion of sexuality education in the school curriculum. The study employed the descriptive research design. The sample for the study consisted of one hundred and fifty(150) parents who were randomly selected from Lagos metropolis. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data was obtained using a self designed questionnaire titled Attitude of Parents Towards inclusion of Sexuality Education in the School Curriculum Questionnaire (APTISESCQ). The instrument has a reliability co-efficient of r =0.75. The data obtained was analysed using the t -test for hypothesis one and a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for hypothesis two. Results showed that there is no significant difference in the attitude of parents towards inclusion of sexuality education in the school curriculum on the basis of gender and educational qualifications. Based on the findings, recommendations were made that there is the need to intensify efforts in educating parents on the importance of sexuality education and also that sexuality educators should be properly trained.

Cognitive Styles and Fluid Intelligence: Are They Related? PDF
Ebrahim Khodadady, Atefeh Tafaghodi
This study was designed to find out whether there was any significant relationship between cognitive styles and fluid intelligence. To this end, the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) were administered to three hundred fifty five undergraduate and graduate university students as measures of cognitive styles and fluid intelligence, respectively. The students were first divided into two distinct groups, i.e., field dependent (FD) and field independent (FI), on the basis of their scores on the GEFT. The performance of these two groups on the SPM was then analyzed and compared with the GEFT. The T-Test analysis showed that the FI students’ scores on the SPM were significantly higher than those of the FD. The findings are discussed and suggestions are made for future research.

Community Leadership and Attitude to Impact of Ecotourism Development in Cross River State PDF
Eja, Eja .I., Otu, Judith.E., Agbor, Emmanual. A, Emri. Samuel.I
The unique nature of Cross River State owing to its geographical features of ecotourism potentials makes the state a natural paradise. This paper seeks to assessed communities and leadership attitude to the impacts of ecotourism development with regards to its impact on the standard of living of the people in the areas. Two communities were used in each ecoutorism zone which include Afamosing and Nyaye in Cross River State National Park located in Akamkpa while  in Okwango Division the two communities were Butatong and Okwa. However, four hundred structured questionnaires were used of which two hundred were distribute to each community using random sampling technique. Findings show that even though ecotourism has improved the standard of living of the people, it was not devoid of problems such as inflation and cultural diffusion. Besides, the data analyzed also revealed that community leadership has a fundamental role to play in ecotourism development in the two communities in the area. Therefore, if ecotourism must be encourage in Cross River State, community leadership must be incorporated in ecotourism development framework of the State.

An Outlook of Educational Attainment and Literacy in Rural India: A Case Study PDF
Mohammad Muqeet Khan, Nizamuddin Khan
In rural India, the socio-economic conditions have largely constrained the process of education and the social inequalities of caste, class and gender have been identified as the major causes of educational deprivation among children in India. A large proportion of children from the economically poor and socially disadvantaged groups, especially girls, are either denied access or are failing to complete even five years of basic education. The goal of universal and compulsory education remains a challenge to achieve even after six decades of independence. The present paper has tried to highlight the various aspects of education and state of literacy in Ambedkarnagar District in North India. Study also examined the rate of literates and illiterates by population and sex in various Community Development Blocks in general and scheduled castes and scheduled tribes’ population in particular. The distribution of villages by literacy rate range as well as according to the distance from the nearest statutory town and availability and non-availability of educational facility has also elaborated. This paper has been presented at the International Conference on Education Awareness for Social Sectors Issues in India, organized by Singhania University, India, in collaboration with Bedfordian Business School, Luton, United Kingdom & Toff Institute of Management and Engineering Studies, India during 24 July, 2011.

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