Vol 5, No 1

Table of Contents

Articles

Effects of Animal Faeces and Their Extracts on Maize Yield in an Ultisol of Eastern Nigeria PDF
C.L.A. Asadu, C.R. Igboka
In this work, the potential use of organic wastes in improving the productivity of the low-base status of an ultisol was evaluated in the greenhouse using a completely randomized design. There were twelve treatments replicated four times including the control. The treatments were solid poultry droppings, piggery dung and cow dung and their extracts obtained after soaking for one week, two weeks, and more than two weeks. These treatments were properly applied to 2 kg of potted soil (equivalent of 15 t ha-1) and planted with maize grains at a rate of two grains per pot and thinned down to one seedling after germination. The results showed that extract from poultry droppings soaked for more than two weeks gave the highest yield of maize dry matter (18.30 g plant-1), followed by extracts from pig dung soaked for more than two weeks which yielded (18.14 g plant-1) and solid poultry dropping (17.47 g plant-1) while solid cow done or its extracts gave the lowest yield of (5.08 g plant-1) but all were significantly higher than control (1.84 g plant-1). All the treatments significantly increased the soil organic matter, exchangeable bases, cation exchange capacity and the available phosphorus. With the increase of soil nutrients following the application of the organic wastes, all amendments increased maize performance over the control. The recommended best form of the animal manure for optimum maize growth was the liquid form especially that of poultry that was soaked for more than two weeks.

Eco-Friendly Management Strategies for Gray Leaf Spot Disease of Sorghum Using Cultivar Selection and Seed Dressing Fungicides in Maiduguri, Nigeria PDF
B.A. Tunwari, H. Nahunnaro, A.B. Anaso
Gray leaf spot is one of the most important foliage diseases of sorghum. A study on the fungicidal seed treatment and screening sorghum cultivars on gray leaf spot disease was investigated in a split plot arrangement using four seed dressing fungicides (Metalaxyl, Captan, Thiobendazole and Benomyl), untreated control and five sorghum cultivars (ICSV111, ICSV400, ICSH89002NG, ICSH89009NG and Q-L INDIA). The combined results of the two year revealed that synergistic interaction of cultivars (ICSV111, ICSV400, ICSH89002NG and ICSH89009NG) with Apron plus 50Ds significantly reduced severity at 60 DAS from 40 to 25% compared with untreated check. Similarly, Cultivars ((ICSV111 and ICSV400) with Apron plus 50Ds brought about significant reduction in logistic infection from 0.023 to 0.0006 units per day over untreated check. This further culminated into better seedling establishment and grain yield were increased.

Influence of Mucuna pruriens Green Manure, NPK and Chicken Manure Amendments on Soil Physico – Chemical Properties and Growth and Yield of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) PDF
P. Atta Poku, K. Agyarko, H. K. Dapaah, M. M. Dawuda
Field experiments were conducted during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at the University of Education, Winneba, Mampong-Ashanti campus, located in the forest-savanna transitional zone of Ghana. The study evaluated the influence of Mucuna pruriens (MP) green manure, NPK (15:15:15) and chicken manure (CM) or their combinations on soil physical and chemical properties; and growth and yield of carrot. The six treatments, which were arranged in a RCBD included: 250 kg NPK ha-1, 20t CM ha-1, 30t MP ha-1, 125kg NPK ha-1 + 15t MP ha-1, 10t CM ha-1 + 15t MP ha-1 and no amendment (control). The application of MP green manure, CM, MP + CM,  and MP + NPK fertilizer  combinations significantly improved soil total porosity and gravimetric moisture content than the control. Soil bulk density was high in the control plots than the manures and their combinations with NPK. Compared with the control, the application of CM, MP green manure, NPK + MP and CM + MP significantly increased soil organic carbon, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, ECEC and percentage base saturation levels. Organic matter content, NH+4-N, NO-3-N and SO2-4-S were high in the amended plots than the control. Plant height, number of leaves per plant and canopy spread per plant for the 20t CM ha-1 treatment were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the other five treatments in both 2010 and 2011 seasons. All the amended plots produced longer carrot roots with larger diameter than the control in 2010 and 2011 seasons. The 20t CM ha-1 produced the highest root yields with the 10t CM ha-1 + 15t MP ha-1 following as the second highest in the 2010 and 2011 seasons. Root yield, and harvest index for all the amended plots were significantly higher than the control. The use of Mucuna pruriens green manure, chicken manure and the MP + NPK as well as the MP + CM combinations are recommended for improving soil fertility and increased yield of carrot.

Productivity and Efficiency of Groundnut Farming in Northern Taraba State, Nigeria PDF
G.B. Taphee, A.A.U. Jongur
The research was carried out to examine the Productivity and Efficiency of Groundnut Farming in Northern Taraba State.  The objectives of the study were to:, determine the technical efficiency of groundnut farmers, analyse the influence of some socio-economic characteristics of farmers on technical efficiency. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire administered to 150 randomly selected farmers in the study area.  Data generated from the questionnaire were analysed using Stochastic Frontier Production Function. The study revealed that the variance of parameters gamma (γ) and sigma-squared (δ2) of the frontier production function were statistically significant at 1 percent level of significance.  The variables indicate positive and significant at 10 percent level of significance for seed and fertilizer, while farm size and family labour were statistically significant at 1 percent respectively.  Mean technical efficiency index was 0.97, while minimum and maximum technical efficiency were 0.63 and 0.99 respectively.

Factors Associated with Adoption and Utilization of Moringa among Rural Women in Osun State, Nigeria PDF
Adeloye K.A
The study focused on factors associated with adoption and utilization of Moringa among rural women in Osun State, Nigeria. Data were gathered through structured interview schedule from 120 rural women that participated in DelPHE Project 643. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools while inferential statistics such as Chi Square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used to test the hypothesis set. The results of the study showed that the mean age of women interviewed in the study area was 43.5 ± 2.9 years and had spent an average of 4.4 ± 4.2 years in formal school, while vast majority (81.7%) of them belongs to one association or the other. The result also indicated that few (15.7%) of the women were not involved in any occupation. There were significant association between respondents’ level of Moringa’s adoption and their main occupation (χ2= 33.48; ρ≤ 0.01); organization membership (χ2= 29.50; ρ≤ 0.01); and marital status (χ2= 32.85; ρ≤ 0.05), also there was negative and significant relationship between respondents’ adoption of Moringa and their age (r=-0.414; ρ≤ 0.01); and the relationship with their years of formal education (r=0.434; ρ≤ 0.01) was positive. The study also identified four crucial factors associated with adoption and utilization of Moringa among rural women in the study area which were socio economic factor (λ= 1.8202); extension agents’ related factor (λ= 1.6744); Moringa related factor (λ= 2.6458); and community related factor (λ= 0.7792). The factors identified explained 83.50 percent of the variance in adoption and utilization of Moringa among rural women in Osun State.

Improving Sustainable Vegetable Production and Income through Net Shading: A Case Study of Botswana PDF
Som Pal Baliyan
Poor and seasonal production of vegetables has been a problem in Botswana which leads to dependency on imported vegetables. Among others, damage caused by sunburn and birds are important causes for poor production of vegetables. There was a need to explore strategies to minimize the damage caused by sunburn and birds and therefore, to increase the vegetable production. The shade net was found to be a suitable strategy to improve vegetable production by reducing the damage caused by sunburn and birds. The shade net project was planned and implemented in year 2012 at Livingstone Kolobeng College in Gaborone, Botswana (Southern Africa) aiming at improving the vegetable production and therefore, income. The specific objectives of the project were to increase the production and supply of quality vegetables to the school community, to generate additional income by sale of vegetables produced and, to create a demonstration and practical unit for students. All the basic steps considered in designing an effective project such as situation analysis, stakeholder analysis, problem analysis, objective analysis, strategy analysis, log frame analysis, scheduling, swot analysis, budgeting, appraisal and monitoring and evaluation has been presented and discussed. The impact evaluation of the project has given positive results whereby the total vegetable production and the income has increased by 162% and 103%, respectively. The project can be replicated to other schools, government offices, organizations and vegetable farmers not only in Botswana but also in other African countries.



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