Vol 3, No 2

Table of Contents

Articles

Correlation, Path Analysis and Stepwise Regression in Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) under Rainfed Conditions PDF
HANNACHI Abderrahmane, FELLAHI Zine El Abidine, BOUZERZOUR Hamenna, BOUTEKRABT Ammar
The present study was carried at the Field Crop Institute-Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (Algeria) during 2011/12 crop season. Correlation, Path analysis and stepwise regression were executed to investigate the relationships between grain yield and other important yield components in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). The experimental material consisted of fifteen hybrids produced using a half diallel fashion in 2010/11 season and theirs six parents. Differences among all the traits were statistically significant. Grain yield per plant was significantly and positively correlated with above ground biomass, straw yield, number of spikes per plant and number of grains per spike. Results of stepwise regression and path analysis revealed that both above ground biomass and harvest index can be a criterion to select high-yielding genotypes in breeding durum wheat programs.

In Vitro Growth Media Effect for Regeneration of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Evaluation of the Salt Tolerance Activity of Callus PDF
Lutfun Nahar Liza, A.N.M. Nasar, K.M.A. Zinnah, Md. Al Nayem Chowdhury, M. Ashrafuzzaman
The identification of the best culture medium and the most suitable tomato variety was performed by In vitro regeneration. In the present study, attempts have been made to develop an efficient protocol for regeneration of V1 (ROMA VF), V2 (Baromasi Hybrid Tomato: JHOLOK) and V3 (Tomato Hybrid F1 JAGUR) varieties with their tolerance against abiotic stress (salt) to obtain stress tolerant tomato. The cotyledon induced in MS medium which was supplemented with T1 (MS+1mg/l BA+0.5mg/l NAA), T2 (MS + 1.5mg/l BA + 1mg/l NAA) and T3 (2mg/l BA + 1.5mg/l NAA) from seeds of those varieties. Maximum percentage (75%) of cotyledon induction was observed in T1 for V1, V2 and T3 for V3 respectively. Cotyledon derived from different concentrations of BA and NAA were cultured on MS medium supplemented with T3 (1.5 mg/l NAA, 2 mg/l BA) and TL (2.0 mg/l Kinetin) for plantlet regeneration. It was observed that MS media supplemented with T3 + TL produced lowest percentage of shoot (20%), callus (10%) and root (0%) in case of V2 and highest percentage of shoot (80%), callus(60%) and root (20%) in case of V3. Callus were transferred to the regeneration medium supplemented with NaCl (0 to 75mM) in order to examine their responses to salinity, the above three varieties, showed a significant decline in the callus growth. Present studies have shown that Hybrid F1 JAGUR variety is more responsive in regeneration and salt tolerant than others.

Theoretical, Analytical, and Methodological Issues on Regional Integration and Bilateral Trade in the ECOWAS Sub-Region: Evidence from Literature on the Gravity Model of Trade PDF
Jonathan Reuben, Chukwuemeka John Arene, Noble Jackson Nweze
ECOWAS has been enforcing sub-regional integration through free international trade, common external tariff wall, consolidation or freezing of customs duties, non-tariff barriers to intra-trade and gradual phasing out of duties on industrial products from community projects over a period of 6-10 years at 10-16.6% annual rates of reduction depending on the classification of member states based on the level of development, location, and importance of customs revenue. However, comparatively few studies used the gravity model to explore empirically the determinants of intra-regional trade among countries in SSA, on one hand, and between the countries of regional groupings on the other hand. Some of the studies produced significant effects of the impact of regional groupings on bilateral trade in member countries, while others account for less. This paper tries to document theoretical, analytical, and methodological discuss on the topic in the context of augmented traditional gravity model of trade.

Geographical Commentary on Agricultural Farms Northeastern Montenegro PDF
Goran Rajović
The paper presents a geographical view of the farms of northeastern Montenegro. At the beginning of the nineties, Montenegro, like other socialist countries entered a period of transition. The beginning of the transition process is associated with a number of negative effects, such as the decline in employment and the decline in production, with a concurrent rise in prices. Agriculture is blocked and moved his are powerlessness logic. According to the census of 2003 in limited geographic space were 7.357 farms and total acreage totaled 67.379 ha. The average farm size is 9.16 ha of agricultural land. However, if one takes into account the arable land (6.772 ha), then the average size of farms decreased to 0.92 ha. In the region of 6.721 or 91.36% of agricultural households is disposed of possession of less than 5.00 ha. In addition, it is a chance for the region of small farms, which are in the conditions of market economy, is gaining in importance. In fact, distinguished by a high degree of flexibility, it is easy to adapt to the changes and demands of the environment in which they are located, secure for themselves not only survival, but also adequate growth and development, quality specialist. They are easier to manage, easier for them to achieve higher revenues, invest faster, easier to export, easier to innovate, they have an offensive entrepreneurial spirit, providing the dynamics of local development, is also better to solve the problem of unemployment. Despite recognition of the importance of rural development projects in the region so far, have not rested on national development programs, but mostly on private initiative of individuals and groups.

Role of Herbal Residues in Pathogen Inhibition and VFA Production by in Vitro Studies in Pigs PDF
Mocherla V A N Suryanarayana
A basal diet was added with six herbal residues viz- Bacopa monnieri Withania sominifera, Garcinia cambogia, Gingeber officinale, Emblica officinalis, Curcuma longa to make six dietary treatments (T1-T6),respectively to evaluate volatile fatty acid production and their ability to inhibit pathogen growth in a CRD model. It was observed that the lowest (P<0.05) pathogenic count was recorded for T4 as compared to others. In T1 to T6, acetic acid production non-significantly dominated propionic acid followed by butyric acid. It was concluded that herbal residues especially Zingiber officinale can be hypothetically used as an alternate to antibiotics in pigs in improving the performance indices.

Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Colour Profile of Paneer Stored at 3±1 º C PDF
Swati Shrivastava, Sumit Goyal, G.K. Goyal
Paneer, an acid coagulated dairy product, is very popular in Indian subcontinent, but its shelf life is quite low being approx. 6 days at refrigeration temperature. Hence, a study was planned to increase the shelf life of paneer by employing MAP technique. Two hundred fifty grams of paneer samples were packaged in high barrier bags (LLD/BA/Nylon-6/ BA/ LDPE) under five different atmospheres (air: atm 1; vacuum: atm 2; 100% CO2: atm 3; 100% N2: atm 4; 50% CO2/ 50% N2: atm 5), and stored at 3±1 °C. Periodically, the quality of paneer was evaluated for changes in colour profile, viz., Hunter Lab colour profile, Hunter Lab Total colour difference, Relative yellowness and Hue angle.

Preference by Adult Female Riptortus Clavatus Thunberg for Plants from the Fabaceae and Other Plant Families PDF
Hiromi Ikeura, Koji Kuroda
To obtain basic knowledge regarding the preference of adult female Riptortus clavatus for particular host plants, we investigated the preference of R. clavatus for green soybean, common bean, and cow pea as host plants, and between cow pea and either bell pepper, lettuce, cabbage, or cucumber. R. clavatus indicated a preference for cow pea over green soybean, followed by common bean. In addition, it was indicated that R. clavatus can distinguish among host plants. R. clavatus preferred cow pea over various non-host plants to a highly significant degree. These results clarified that adult female R. clavatus have strong ability to distinguish among host and non-host plants in the Fabaceae.

Chemical composition of a standard sugarcane wine of Saccharum officinarum Linn from Woleu-Ntem, Gabon PDF
ABOGO MEBALE Aimé-Jhustelin, SUEBANG François Constant, ONDO AZI Alain Serge, YEMELONG Jean Norbert, ONDO Jean Aubin, Nsi Emvo Edouard, EBA François
The alcohol level and phytochemical screening of sugarcane wine of Saccharum officinarum Linn were studied. The proof of sugarcane wine was evaluated at more than 14% (v/v). Studies of phytochemical constituents showed the presence of alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins, reductor compounds and flavonoids. Many of these compounds are benefit for the human health. Presence of polyphenols and flavonoids allow the wine to get antioxidant properties.

Salt Stress Effects on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Genotypes PDF
F. Adjel, H. Bouzerzour, A. Benmahammed
Salt tolerance of twelve barley genotypes was investigated at the germination and seedling growth stages. Germination percentage, speed of germination, shoots and roots fresh weight, K and Na concentrations in the shoots and roots were measured. The genotypic responses varied among growth stages. At the germination stage root length and germination percentage were the most discriminating traits between sensitive and tolerant cultivars.  At the seedling growth stage, shoots fresh weight, K+, Na+ and K+/Na+ ratio were the discriminating traits. The evaluated genotypes were grouped into three clusters. The genotypes of first cluster were salt tolerant at the germination stage, those of the second and the third clusters were sensitive and tolerant, respectively, at both growth stages. The results indicated that high K concentration and K/Na ratio were the main differentiating traits among clusters.

Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Evaluation under Semi Arid Conditions in Eastern Algeria by Path Analysis PDF
A. Guendouz, M. Djoudi, S. Guessoum, K. Maamri, Z. Fellahi, A. Hannachi, M. Hafsi

This study was aimed to characterize yield components and plant traits related to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in durum wheat genotypes grown under irrigated and non-irrigated field conditions during two cropping seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012).

In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the number of spikes m-2, number of grains spike-1, kernel weight and number of grains m-2 were the independent ones. Grain yield showed positive phenotypic correlation with number of spikes m-2 and number of grains per m-2under both conditions and during two cropping seasons.Path analysis revealed positive direct effect of 1000- kernels weight, number of spike m-2 and number of grains per spike on grain yield. These results indicated that the 1000- kernels weight and number of spikes m-2 followed by the number of grains per spike and number of grains per m-2 were the traits related to higher grain yield, under irrigated and late season water stress conditions.

 



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