Vol 2, No 1

Table of Contents

Articles

Multi-Scale Based Multifractal Analysis Method PDF
Xu Xin, Chen Yi-Wang
In this paper, the method of caculating multifractal spectrum with partition function is briefly introduced based on multifractal theory. As research object, a growing structure is simulated by computer. Then we discuss the shortage of the partition function method and the effection of free scale zones to multifractal spectrum results. At last, a new approach is presented to express developing surface structure. It can describe the character of developing surface structure more exactly, and will play an important role in analyse and characterization of complex structure.

Phytochemical and Nutrient Evaluation of the Leaves and Fruits of Nauclea Latifolia (Uvuru-ilu) PDF
Sunday Onyekwere Eze, Obinwa Ernest
The Phytochemical and Nutrient evaluation of the leaves and fruits of Naulcea latifolia (Uvuru-ilu) was undertaken because of the wide application of the plant in ethnomedicine. Ethanolic extracts of the plant parts were analysed for their phytochemicals, proximate composition including minerals and some vitamins using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds in the leaves and fruit samples. The leaves of Nauclea latifolia contained tannins 0.374%, alkaloid 2.387%, 0.373% flavonoid, 1.25% saponins, 0.377% phytate and 16.897mg/kg of HCN. The fruit also revealed the presence of 0.214%, 1.407% 0.433%, 0.833%, 0.377% and 9.270mg/kg for tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phytates and cyanogenic glycosides respectively. The proximate analyses of the leaves and fruits revealed that Nauclea latifolia is rich in proteins 12.51%, fats 1.49%, fibre 34.82%, ash 5.46%, carbohydrates 46.69%, moisture 68.93% and dry matter 31.07% in the leaves while the fruit should 15.42%, 1.74%, 35.88%, 8.19%, 38.79%, 44.72% and 55.28% of proteins, fat, fibre, ash, carbohydrates, moisture and dry matter respectively. The analysis also show that the leaves and fruit contain essential minerals such as Ca 52.104, Mg 3.17, K 427.50, P 457.83 in mg/100g w/w basis for the leaves as well as 85.51 Ca, 4.50 Mg, 368.67 K, and 429.86 P. Vitamin A and C analysis for the leaves gave 17.65 mg/100g and 56.74 mg/100g respectively while we got 36.22 and 67.47 respectively from the fruits on a mg/100g basis. The phytochemical analysis supports the extensive use of the leaves and fruits of nauclea latifolia in ethnomedicine in many parts of Africa and the proximate analysis showed that its use in the feeding of ruminants and human consumption of the fruits is a good practice.

Analytical Potentials of Dye Extracts from Urena Lobata (Mgbo) Flowers PDF
Sunday O. Eze, Rose A. Ogbuefi
Indicators used in titrations show well-marked changes of color in certain intervals of pH. Most of these indicators are organic dyes and are of synthetic origins. The present study was designed to evaluate the extracts of a flower from a plant that is easily available. The analytical potentials of ethanol, cold water, and hot water extracts of dyes from the flowers of a common plant, Urena lobata were evaluated. 3 drops of the dye extract were dropped in 10ml of 0.1M H2SO4. This was titrated against 0.1M NaOH until the colour changed from light pink to light orange at equivalent point. The titration was repeated using standard indicators such as phenolphthalein, methyl orange, bromothymol blue and methyl red for weak acid strong base, strong acid strong base, strong acid weak base and weak acid weak of equimolar concentrations. The same acid and base of same strength were also assessed using potentiometric titration. These results indicated that flower extracts of this plant can be used as acid-base indicator in all types of  titration. The pH of these indicators was also determined. The rationale behind using these natural indicators in preference to synthetic indicators is its easy availability, inertness, ease of preparation and cost effectiveness.

Vertical Electrical Sounding for Aquifer Characterization around the Lower Orashi River Sub-Basin Southeastern Nigeria PDF
Ibeneme S.I., Okereke C.N., Iroegbu C., Etiefe E.O.
The different aquifer units within the Lower Orashi River Sub-Basin Southeastern Nigeria were delineated using the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique. Twenty two (22) VES soundings were carried out using the ABEM SAS 4000 Terrameter. The data generated were analyzed using the Zohdy software which outputted modeled curves in terms of depth and resistivity. Six profiles were taken in the Northeast–Southwest and Northwest–Southeast directions to cover the entire area of study. Four to six geo-electric layers comprising the top soil, clayey sand, dry sandstone, saturated sandstone, shaley sand and sandy shale were delineated with the later usually occurring as the last layer. The third and fourth layers underlying dry sandstone form the aquiferous unit. This unit was found to have an average resistivity value range of 10.7 – 6060Ωm and an average thickness of 32m. It was observed that most of the aquifer units within the area are unconfined with static water level varying between 10.6 to 62.8m. Some of the aquifer units are shallow with static water level less than 40m while others are deeper with static water level occurring at over 60m below the surface. It was advised that care ought to be taken in drilling and casing at shallow aquiferous areas to maintain proper sanitary condition so as to reduce the risk of groundwater contamination.

Anti Bacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber Officinale and Pipper Nigrum against Some Clinical Isolates PDF
D. W. Taura, S. Lawan, S. M. Gumel, S. Umar, U. F. Sadisu
Ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale and Pipper nigrum were evaluated by testing in vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and proteus specie using Agar diffusion method. Proteus specie showed sensitivity to Z. officinale at disc concentration range of 50 to 800µg/ml, Staphylococcus aureus also showed sensitivity to z. officinale at concentration of 100 to 800 µg/ml and Klebsiella pneumonia showed sensitivity at disc concentration of 100 to 800 µg/ml likewise proteus specie showed sensitivity to p. nigrum at disc concentration range of 100 to 800µg/ml and staphylococcus aureus also showed sensitivity to p. nigrum at disc concentration range of 100 to 800µg/ml. However, the Ethanolic extract of z. officinale and p. nigrum showed no lethal or inhibitory effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli at all concentration. The observed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the Ethanolic extraction for proteus species, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia were 50, 100,200µglml respectively for Z. officinale, while for P. nigrum, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were 100 and 200µg/ml for Proteus specie and staphylococcus aureus respectively. The extracts were further subjected to phytochemical tests for the presence of secondary metabolites using standard procedures. The results of phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, Flavonoid, reducing sugar, saponins and steroids in Z. officinale, and alkaloids, Flavonoid, saponins, steroids and tannin in P. nigrum. This indicates that both Z. officinale and piper nigrum has the potential for the production of drugs against pathogenic organisms.

On the Comparative Study of Some Numerical Methods for Vanilla Option Valuation PDF
Sunday Emmanuel Fadugba, Chuma Raphael Nwozo
This paper presents some numerical methods for vanilla option valuation namely binomial tree model, Crank Nicolson method and Monte Carlo method. Binomial model is widely used in the finance community for numerical valuation of a wide variety of option models, due primarily to its ease of implementation and pedagogical appeal. Crank Nicolson approach seeks the discretization of the differential operators in the continuous Black Scholes model. Monte Carlo method simulates the random movement of the asset prices and provides a probabilistic solution to the option pricing models. We discuss the strengths, drawbacks and the performance of the methods under consideration. However, binomial model is the most accurate and converges faster than its two counterparts; Crank Nicolson method and Monte Carlo method.

Didactic Communication as Tool in European Integration PDF
Ştefan Vlăduţescu
The study explores the European integration as a major concern of the Romanian societal environment. It highlights three scenarios: the pessimistic, optimistic and pragmatic scenario. There emerges a solution so that the school of the new EU members should raise to the standards of teaching and technological performance of some countries like Germany and France. The European integration is a major concern of the Romanian society and a priority of the contemporary education a. It requires the formation of specialists who will work with European standards, ready for joint labor markets which include: competence, competition, uncertainty, demand and offer, and new selection criteria. The European integration solution on the level of education has two basic elements: a) didactic communication - the shift of the focus from the transmission of information on skills training and b) e-Learning technology - the widespread introduction of e-Learning and of information age technologies in education and career management. In this context, the teacher is not only a transmitter of information limiting himself/herself to giving instructions to students on how to learn and the materials they need to learn, but a coach who stimulates students’ thinking by analytical questions, creates premises for them so that, by finding independent answers, to reach a better understanding of the issues. The teaching position is expressed through the model, partner, advisor status. The teacher as an agent of change must combine the conditions of competence. The professional competence is the ability to apply, transfer and combine knowledge and skills in various work situations and environments to achieve the required activities at work at the quality specified in the occupational standard.

Lean Manufacturing: a concept towards a sustainable management PDF
Alina Tenescu, Mirela Teodorescu
In this paper, we will analyze the concept of lean manufacturing, starting from the example illustrated by TPS (Toyota Production System) which is renowned for its focus on the reduction of the original Toyota seven waists in order to improve overall customer value, in spite of the existence of varying perspectives on how this is best achieved. The steady growth of Toyota, from a small company to the world’s largest automaker (Bailey, 2008) has focused its attention on how it has achieved this success. It is a starting template that was also developed by other automotive makers, and not only. We will also identify the main elements of lean philosophy and propose a typology of the fundamental concepts of lean, using data analysis from research findings across studies on lean manufacturing and lean production published in the past two decades.

Simulation of the use of Yersinia pestis as a Biological Weapon in Nigeria PDF
P.H. Bamaiyi
A simulation study using the Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler was carried out on the potential usage of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague (‘black death’), as a biological weapon of terror. The study revealed widespread infections, incidences and deaths due to the infection all over Nigeria with bioweapon attacks originating from 2 Nigerian cities. Instituting an effective intervention program against the infection could save as many as 3.6 million lives within 10 days of the onset of the intervention program. Intervention programs could include social distancing policies and the use of antibiotics in addition to controlling the rodents and fleas vector population. Because of the relative ease of development of bioweapons and the desperation by terrorists to use any weapon at their disposal to achieve terror, there is an urgent need for an effective preparedness plan that can stop or limit the use of this category A bio-agent for biowarfare.

Assessment of Zn, Cu and Pb Contamination in Soils and Vegetables from Some Farmlands in Lagos Metropolis, Lagos, Nigeria PDF
A. I. Babatunde, O. T. Oyelola, T. Bamidele
The contamination of leafy vegetables with heavy metals poses a serious threat to humans but little attention has been given to such studies in Nigeria. Investigated in this study are the levels of concentration of three heavy metals;  Zn, Cu and Pb in some leafy vegetables viz., cockscomb (Celosia argentea), african spinach  (Amarathus viridis), , jute plant (Corchorus olitorus) and lettuce (Lactuca capensis) from four  farmlands designated as Idi - araba, Isolo, Owode - Onirin and Badore in Lagos Metropolis. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb in the leaves, stems and roots of cockscomb, african spinach,  jute plant and lettuce were found to be 1.542 – 0.125, 88.417 – 17.700, 7.568 – 0.028; 1.633 – 0.125, 82.417 – 18.250, 16.334 – 0.083; 1.583 – 0.028, 17.542 – 8.243, 10.833 – 0.167; 0.046 – 0.235, 0.00, 0.456 – 0.342 mg kg-1 respectively. The concentrations of Pb of the leaves of vegetables at Isolo,  Corchorus olitorus at Idi – araba, Celosia argentea and Lactuca capensis at Badore were above the recommended maximum acceptable limits by WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Zn and Cu contents of leaves of all vegetables are below the recommended limits in the four farmlands. The estimated daily intake of Cu, Zn and Pb through the consumption of Celosia argentea, Amarathus viridis and Corchorus olitorus are below the provisional tolerable daily intake of heavy metals established by FAO/WHO. This study shows that the vegetables obtained directly from the study sites may not constitute a health hazard for consumers.

Sero-Prevalence of Rubella Virus IgM Antibodies among Pregnant Women Attending Muhammadu Abdullahi Wase Specialist Hospital Kano PDF
Koki Y.A., Taura D.W., Mukhtar M.D., Musa M.A., Adamu S., Muhsammad B.B.
Rubella is a generally mild illness and its serious complications are rare. Although a   major section of pregnant women are immuned, cases of rubella infection occur in Nigeria among pregnant women. This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of rubella virus IgM among obstetric population aged 15 – 47 with an average mean of 28.5 years attending Antenatal Clinic Muhammad Abdullahi Wase Specialist Hospital Kano. Of the total 288 patients screened, 50 (17.4%) were reactive to rubella IgM. Out of 50 infected patients 20 (6.95%) were from 20 – 24 years age bracket representing the most  susceptible age group while the infection rate was lowest (0.35%) in 45 – 49 age group, even though when statistically analyzed rubella susceptibility is not age dependent (P = 0.894). Moreover, obstetric history and obstetric losses among various age groups with respect to rubella sero – prevalence shows that of the 50 reactive patients, 35 had a previous abnormal obstetric history. Premature delivery was observed to be almost uniform across all the ages with a prevalence rate of (13.0%), still birth was having the same prevalence with that of premature delivery but with highest frequency in 20-24 years age group. However congenital anomalies was found to have least prevalence rate of (6.5%), neonatal death has prevalence rate of 10.5% with declining frequency towards the ages of 35-49 years (P=0.02). It was found that rubella infection still occurs and rubella susceptibility has no relationship with age group.



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