Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering

Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering (ISSN 2201-8336) is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes papers in all aspects of Bioscience and Bioengineering, including but not limited to: Aerobiology; Anthropology; Biocatalysis; Biochemical Genetics; Biochemistry; Bioinformatics; Bioinformatics; Biological Engineering; Biological Evolution; Biomaterials; Biomathematics; Biomechanics; Biomedical Diagnosis; Biomedical technology; Biomedical Therapy; Biophysics; Bioprocess Design; Biostatistics; Botany; Cytobiology; Developmental Biology; Ecology; Entomology; Enzyme Engineering; Genetic Engineering; Genetics; Horizontal gene transfer; Immunology; Microbiology; Molecular Biology; Nano-Bio-Analysis; Neurobiology; Pathology; Physiology; Protein Engineering; Radiation Biology; Synthetic Biology; Tissue Culture Engineering; Virology; Zoology.

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Vol 7, No 1

Table of Contents

Articles

Simulated Microgravity Altered Hematological Indices Lipid Profile and Creatinine Kinase-Mb in Rattus Norvegicus PDF
Alaba Olumide Ojo, Lawrence Adedayo, Olatunbosun Onaseso, Olufemi Oluranti, Fidelis Ejeheri, Emmanuel Timothy

Several studies related to simulated microgravity via various means have been carried out. However, the effect that positive microgravity exerts on plasma lipid and heart are poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine the influence of simulated positive microgravity via hind limb suspension on hematological indices, lipid profile and the heart using creatinine kinase as a marker.

Twenty-four male wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of six rat each. Group 1 -Normal control, Group 2-Frutose control group, Group 3-Suspended animal without fructose diet and Group4-Suspended animals given fructose diet. After two weeks the animals were euthanized with chloroform, blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture and analyzed.

A significant increase in total white cell counts was observed, though, the amount of lymphocytes in group3 (60.833±11.523) was significantly lower than the control (group 1) (91.317±1.246). Also there were significant reduction in PCV and hemoglobin concentration of group3 compared to the control (group 1). There was no significant alteration in plasma lipid profile and creatinine kinase-MB.

Thus, positive microgravity simulation significantly altered hematological indices, but insignificantly affected plasma lipid profile and creatinine kinase-MB.

Evaluation of the Anti-microbial Activities of the Extracts of the Leaf and Stem Bark of Alstonia congensis on Some Human Pathogenic Bacteria PDF
O.A. Akintobi, B.A. Bamkefa, A.O. Adejuwon, O.S. Obayemi, B.L. Ologan

Background: Prohibitive cost of treatments in developing countries is a challenge under poor economic circumstances. Side effects of several synthetic drugs and the development of resistance to currently used antibiotics for infectious diseases have led to increased emphasis on the use of plant materials as a source of medicine for a wide variety of human ailments. In addition to this and the high level of poverty in developing countries, the use of alternate medicine to cure some diseases is now encouraged in Nigeria to serve as an alternative for orthodox medicine. In this study, phytochemical screening and the anti-microbial capability of parts of a popular African medicinal plant, Alstonia congensis, was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The effects of the plant parts extracts on some human pathogenic bacteria viz; Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were examined in vitro using hexane, ethanol, petroleum ether and water (aqueous) as extractants and at concentrations of 120, 80, 60, 48 and 40mg/ml respectively. Agar well diffusion technique was employed throughout the experimentation. It was discovered that petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stem bark showed appreciable inhibitory effects on the test bacteria (the leaf extracts were more potent than the stem bark extracts). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of each of the extracts was determined. Results: Petroleum ether as well as ethanolic extracts of the leaves was effective on all the bacterial isolates at MIC between 40 mg/ml and 60mg/ml respectively while the aqueous extract of the leaf was slightly effective on E. coli, N. gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. typhi and P. mirabilis at MIC between 60mg/ml and 80mg/ml. It was only the hexane extract of the leaf that was not effective against any of the test bacteria. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of the stem bark was effective against Staphlococcus aureus, S. typhi, P. mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae at MIC between 40mg/ml and 60mg/ml while ethanolic extract of the leaf was not effective against E. coli. Likewise, the hexane extract of the stem bark was not effective against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The aqueous extract of the stem bark showed no effect against Escherichia coli but slightly effective against other isolates at MIC of 80mg/ml for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and at120mg/ml for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Hexane extract of the stem bark did not have any effect against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but very effective against Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis at MIC of 60mg/ml but at 40mg/ml for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts showed much wider zones of inhibition on each of the test bacteria and therefore regarded as the best solvents for extraction. The result of the Standard Antibiotics Disc (SAD) showed that E.coli was inhibited by Ofloxacin (21mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22mm), P.aeruginosa (24mm), N. gonorrhoeae (25mm), S. typhi and P. mirabilis (30mm). E. coli and N. gonorrhoeae was inhibited by Nalidixic acid (22mm), S. typhi and P. aeruginosa (20mm) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10mm). Also, Gentamycin inhibited E.coli (9mm), N. gonorrhoeae (13mm), S. typhi (12mm), P. mirabilis (13mm ) and P.aeruginosa (15mm) except Staphylococcus aureus which was not inhibited by any of these antibiotics. On the other hand, all the isolates exhibited resistance to Amoxycillin while E. coli, N. gonorrhoeae, S. typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, P.mirabilis and P. aeruginosa were resistant to Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Cloxacillin, Erythromycin, Augmentin and Streptomycin. Conclusion: The plant’s parts were found to possess antibacterial activities. The ethanol and petroleum ether were the best solvents for their extraction.



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