Vol 2, No 2

Table of Contents


Some Economic -Geographical Factors Development: The Case of Local Communities Kralje PDF
Goran Rajović, Jelisavka Bulatović

The paper examines a number of economic and geographical factors of the local Community Development Kralje. Isolated traffic and geographical position adversely affect its economic and social development. The percentage reduction in population in the period 1948-2003 amounted to - 56.2%. The main characteristic of the modern development of the local communities are the processes of industrialization and urbanization. Age groups, due to migration and the reduction of fertility change and take on unfavorable characteristics, reduces the proportion of younger and older increases the proportion of the population. In both cases, the disturbed age structure has a reverse effect on the movement of the population (the size of reproductive contingent), but also to all other structures of the population (the size of contingent employment, population, contingent dependent population ratio ….). The paper finally points to survey results, and the analysis focuses on whether the respondents and their perceptions of the quality of living conditions in the village.

Pauline Concept of Agape: Its Implication for Religious Peace and Harmony in Africa: The Nigerian Situation PDF
Olugbenga Olagunju

This paper is titled “Pauline Concept of Agape:  It’s Implication for Religious Peace and Harmony in Africa.” There is an unhealthy tension among different religious groups in Africa today. This tension is much more pronounced between the Christians and Muslims. Religion is being used as an instrument for destabilizing the unity, peace and progress of some nations in Africa especially Nigeria. Recently, there were incidences of religio-political conflicts in Nigeria and other nations in Africa. These conflicts have led to destruction of lives and properties.  Fear, anxiety and suspicion have been created through it. The African Union at different times have set up panel of enquiry to unravel the remote causes of these conflicts and suggest lasting solution that would bring sustainable peace  to the polity. But unfortunately, nothing tangible has been achieved from the panel of inquiries set up to find lasting solution to these problems. The results of religious intolerance are the breaking down of law and order, killing of innocent citizens and destruction of properties. Religious intolerance has led to hatred, social deprivation and injustices among various religious groups. One of the reasons why religious conflicts have not been controlled in Africa is because the government is not sincere in its approach to solving the problem and people are not ready to practice love for their neighbor. The practice of love is what Paul called agaph. Agaph is a common term in the Greco-Roman world which Paul borrowed and used as technis termini in his writings to the Corinthian church. A study of agaph and its application from the letters of Paul is timely for such a pluralistic and diverse society as ours in Africa. The ultimate aim of agaph is to create an atmosphere of peace, justice and unity among different religious groups especially between Christians and Muslims in Nigeria.

The thesis of this paper is that love is imperative and it should be practiced in order to achieve peace and harmony in Africa and most especially in Nigeria where religious bigotry and intolerance predominate.

The method used in this paper is eclectic. It is a method that combines historical-grammatical method in an intercultural hermeneutic. The paper is divided into five sections. Section one begins with the etymology of the term agaph . Section two exegetes 1Cor. 13:4-10 while section three deals with overview of ethno-religious crises in Africa using Nigeria as a case-study. Section four discusses the implication of agaph for ethno-religious peace and harmony while section five concludes with recommendations for the African state.


Crisis of Suicide: A Pastoral Psychological Approach PDF
Stephen Oladele Ayankeye
The issue of death is a common phenomenon among humans.  As common as it is however, the way one dies is a serious concern in the African setting, in particular.  Death by suicide is a detested experience among Africans because there are various supports that should prevent this abrupt and self-destroying practice. Regrettably, in the face of communal resources that could address existential challenges, some persons still commit or attempt suicide. This paper has attempted to consider suicide as a crisis.  Types of suicide have been discussed from sociological and suicidological perspectives.  Reasons for suicide options include unenduring psychic pain, unmet need, loneliness, and avoidance of shame, among others. Recommendations were made for preventive and curative treatment of the challenge.  Ministry of presence and support are vital among the suggestions that pastoral care givers should embark upon. This will help in making life meaningful and bearable in the face of existential questions persons raise in the contemporary experiences in Africa.

Foreign Language Achievement and Its Relation to Teacher Effectiveness and Personality PDF
Ebrahim Khodadady, Parisa Mirjalili
This study explored whether achievement in English as a foreign language (EFL) is significantly related to teacher effectiveness and personality. The administration of a bio questionnaire, the Characteristics of Effective English Language Teachers (CEELT) and the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in Persian to one thousand two hundred and sixty EFL learners and one hundred eighteen EFL teachers in Mashhad, Iran, showed that EFL achievement is significantly related not only to the CEELT as a measure of teacher effectiveness but also to its Rapport, Fairness, Qualification, and Facilitation factors. Similarly, it correlated significantly with the NEO-FFI as a measure of personality. However, out of five personality dimensions only Conscientiousness, and Extraversion correlated with the EFL achievement. The classification of the EFL learners into high, middle and low achievers on the basis of their z-scores and correlating the achievement scores with the two measures showed significant relationships only for middle achievers. The various types of significant relationships between the factors underlying the CEELT and the EFL achievement for the three groups of achievers on the one hand and the significant relationships between the EFL achievement and dimensions of NEO-FFI on the other are presented and discussed. Suggestions are also made for future research.

Effects of Fishing Activities on the Academic Performance of Teenagers in Riverine Areas of Nigeria: Implications for Educational Development Policy in Nigeria PDF
M.T. Udoh, A.I. Achike, Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado
This study examined the effects of fishing activities and socio-economic characteristics of teenagers who engage in fishing on their academic performance in Ibeno Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Two communities were purposively selected and stratified random sampling was used to select fifty six teenage students who participate in fishing industry/activities. Sources of primary data were structured questionnaires and interviews. Analytical techniques used are descriptive statistics and logit regression technique. Results show that academic performance is statistically and inversely related to frequency of fishing per week and family size but directly and significantly related to fishing as a means of supporting academics. Recommendations include a national population policy option aimed at reducing family size and encouraging non-governmental organizations, philanthropists as well as business corporations to work unitedly with different levels of government in providing free education at lower levels and scholarships for higher studies to ease the suffering of teenagers who fish to support/finance their education.

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