Vol 14, No 1

Table of Contents

Articles

A Hidden Informality? Informal Occupation in Milan: The Housing Needs and the Events of Protest PDF
Nilva Karenina Aramburu Guevara

Over the last decade, the growing dynamic of housing needs, experiences of instability, crumbling welfare system, real estate crisis and the seeming intricacies of socio-economic policies have made the issue of informal occupation quite a hidden phenomenon in Milan city.  A city in which homeownership is increasingly unobtainable and high disproportion of overall economic incomes strongly affect housing choices and opportunities. The scarce resources and management difficulties in the public administration of social housing in Milan and the high migration flows have contributed to the lack of building maintenance, process and manifestation of informal occupation and the generation of housing evictions. People who are not eligible to enter in the lists for public housing, but they neither cannot afford to rent at market prices are also included in this issue, such younger people. In addition, this issue has become a trigger for strong social tension and conflict concerning the public institution, formal residents and informal ones. The generation of "without" have the feeling that their voices have not been heard, even through radical protest. The great mass movements, around the social housing issues, the collectivization of the protest have been passed. Now, in Milan remains disaggregated social mobilizations and atomized, those who protest have to deal always with unsustainable housing market prices and find adaptive housing strategies.

The essence of this study is therefore to show the critical issue of informal occupation in Milan, through a qualitative approach to deduce successes and weaknesses from housing policies that deal with this phenomenon, encourage unused resources as well as stipulating important hints for professionals. Through a desk study attempt primarily based on literature and secondary data, but also an informant data collection based on interviews.  The findings from the study revealed the need of changing welfare mechanisms, fragmented and isolated approaches to deal informal occupation, and lack of preventive measures.  The study proposes the need for new housing policies that considered sustainable funding, community interaction and private partnership, coalitions for economic and social development programs, and provision of flexible housing alternatives that recognize the demands of the territory and implement innovative forms over the limits of living in Milan.

Music, Learning and Early Childhood Education: A Review of Literature PDF
Mangwaya Ezron
Oftentimes teachers consider learning in the formal classroom as the best approach to teaching early childhood learners. Activities such as music and dance are usually regarded as opportunities for relaxation and therefore not useful as tools for effective teaching and learning. This review of literature demonstrates that singing or music as it is currently known provides invaluable avenues for concept acquisition across the early childhood school curriculum. The review thus proposes various ways which early childhood education teachers can adopt in using music as an avenue for effective teaching and learning.

Further Validation of an Indirect Measure of Celebrity Stalking PDF
Lynn E. McCutcheon, Mara Aruguete, Nancy G. McCarley, William J. Jenkins
The Obsessive Relational Intrusion and Celebrity Stalking scale (ORI & CS) was developed to identify persons likely to become stalkers of celebrities. The purpose of the present study is to provide additional evidence about the reliability and validity of the ORI & CS. We administered the ORI & CS and measures of celebrity worship, fantasy proneness, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and celebrity stalking behavior in several possible orders to 145 college students. Neither the fantasy proneness scale nor the obsessive-compulsive measure correlated significantly with the ORI & CS, but both subscales of the latter did correlate significantly with the two more problematic subscales of the celebrity worship measure, essentially replicating an earlier study. Furthermore, obnoxious celebrity stalking behavior was the best predictor of threat subscale scores from the ORI & CS. Implications for the further study of celebrity stalking are explored.

Language Norm in Various Stages of English Learning in Mainland China PDF
Xianjun Tan
The concept of norm itself means certain restriction, restraint and guidance. Due to the role of norm, people can correctly understand and use the language, abide by the social behavioral norms and obtain effective knowledge. Language norm as a social phenomenon, just like other social phenomena, such as morality, consciousness and custom, is a natural presentation of the convergence of the social group behaviors. Different stages of English learning have different teaching objectives and the emphasis of language norm should be different. Research on the language norms in various stages of English learning is based on the aim of conducting effective communication. Corresponding restriction, restraint and guidance based on the real situation of the students is to help the students conduct the cross-cultural communication more smoothly.



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