Vol 13, No 1

Table of Contents


Right to Education in Bangladesh: An Appraisal for Constitutional Guarantee PDF
Mohammad Badruzzaman, Nannu Mian
Education is a process in developing humans on acquiring knowledge and practicing skills for the intrinsically inherent onward progress of the society. Human development can be categorically ascribed as impossible without education as it has all along been the backbone of the society and the precondition for the proliferation of thriving civilization, hence, ‘Education’ is recognized as a human right in various international instruments.  The Constitution of Bangladesh  declared that education was free and compulsory and also the State shall adopt effective measures for the purpose of establishing a uniform, mass oriented and universal system of education.  For this purpose, the Education Policy  in Bangladesh has been accordingly passed and the draft of Education Law  is on the way to become an Act. These imply emphasis on education that should be kept in a legal framework to keep pace with the competitive contemporary world. Bangladesh is a stakeholder of those international instruments recognizing education as a human right. Thus, Bangladesh cannot deny the responsibilities attendant in the instruments. Moreover, a constitutional incorporation of education as a Fundamental Principles of the State Policy is an implied obligation to irrevocably recognize it as a Fundamental Right or to give it a constitutional guarantee. Recently, numerous countries, both the East and the West, neighboring countries of Bangladesh recognized education as a right along with a constitutional guarantee because the pursuit of knowledge is obligatory for any individual and in a sense; Bangladesh can be cited as a good example in this regard.

Poetry’s Two Estates and Shared Meanings: the Grounds of Comparative Literature PDF
Amechi N. Akwanya
Literature is studied in different ways and at different levels: as works, namely the productions of geniuses, or in Heidegger’s sense of made things, which at the same time share with natural things the sense of being by themselves and self-sufficient; literary works are also studied as part of cultural phenomena and part or even the expression of a cultural tradition. In certain historical reconstructions, they may also be discussed as milestones and representative portrayals of the ethos and sensibility of a period. Their study as things making up a class of phenomena which can be compared among themselves is another level which, like the approaches focusing on the work as a self-sufficient entity, calls for specific kinds of expertise. Originality as an artistic requirement may lead in the study of literature to emphasis on the unique and distinctive features, which are easily identified at the surface level, whereas comparative studies are in real terms a challenge to explore literary phenomena in depth for shared core values. In this paper, these shared values are sought in the poetic image, found to be involved in the identity of literary works qua poetry, and serve as a basis of comparative literary studies.

A Combinatorial and Synergistic Analysis of Some Selected Nigerian Taxes and Economic Growth PDF
Oloidi Gabriel Adebayo
The current study focused on some selected Nigerian taxes and their contributions to economic growth. In order to achieve this objective, a dependent variable, to proxy economic growth, was identified as the gross domestic product (GDP). Four independent variables (tax bases), were value added tax,(VAT),  company income tax, (CIT), petroleum profit tax,(PPT) and customs and excise  (CEX) tax .A mathematical combination was applied on the independent variables resulting in 15 econometric models. Findings revealed that VAT and PPT were synergistically significant six (6) out of eight (8) possible times. The CIT was significant five (5) out of eight (8) times and the last and also the least was significant three (3) out of eight (8) times. The overall synergy was 59.34 percent.. Part of the recommendations were that government should reduce the 30 percent CIT to encourage investment and that an enduring strategy should be put in place to address the importation of some goods and services that are sabotaging the economy and also the consumption of some goods that were also detrimental to the health and well-being of the citizenry.

Contested Space: Manila Sunset Bay and the Conflict Over Land Reclamation for an Urban Transformation Project PDF
Seth Asare Okyere, Gifty Adom-Asamoah, Karenina Guevara Aramburu, Don Johnson Lontoc
Urban spaces are becoming contested spaces, where different groups and institutions, political or apolitical, legitimize their right to use, maintain and appropriate space for various purposes, eventually leading to conflicts and contestations. The Manila Bay area has been at the center of reclamation efforts and opposition against such efforts over a long period.  Through observation, interviews and documentary sources, this paper provides a narrative on a developing conflict between local citizen groups, city authority and real estate organizations. The first section of the paper provides a background on the Manila Bay cultural value and the proposed solar city reclamation project. Secondly, the paper highlights an evolution of the conflict through a network analysis. The final section of the paper outlines decisional strategies for conflict transformation by focusing on patterns of interaction and the network among the different actors.

Relationship between Learning Motivation and Academic Emotions of Pre-service Early Childhood Teachers PDF
Ching-Sheue FU
Pre-service learning differs from classroom learning, an investigation is necessary to determine whether this logic is applicable to Pre-service early childhood teachers. Accordingly, we adopted a random sampling method for conducting a questionnaire survey, and 322 valid questionnaires were retrieved. Causal path analysis was conducted using learning motivation as the independent variable and positive and negative academic emotions as the dependent variables. The results show that learning motivation has no effect on positive academic emotions, although it has a positive effect on negative academic emotions. The academic emotions experienced in Pre-service learning differ from the emotions experienced in classroom learning. Our findings indicate that before commencing teaching practice, Pre-service early childhood teachers may have overly optimistic attitudes regarding teaching training, and they may have strong aspirations to become qualified teachers through studying. However, this overly optimistic self-cognition could cause them to experience anxiety in real teaching situations.

Research on the Cultural Zigong from the Perspective of One Belt and One Road Initiative PDF
Xianjun Tan
In the year of 2011, the development goal of constructing Five Zigong was put forward by the local authority of Zigong, which is a prefecture-level city of Sichuan Province and located in the southwest of People’s Republic of China. Five Zigong is associated with five aspects, including industry, ecology, culture, innovation and happiness. In the year of 2013, Chinese president Xi Jinping put forward the One Belt and One Road Initiative. This paper analyses how to construct cultural Zigong from the perspective of One Belt and One Road Initiative.

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