Vol 5, No 2

Table of Contents


Snowball Sampling Completion PDF
Irina-Maria Dragan, Alexandru Isaic-Maniu

The snowball sampling, as a network research, presents numerous advantages in registering “hidden populations” such as: drug consumers, people with deviant sexual behavior, people with rare diseases which are unapproved by society, illegal immigrants, people working in the black market, but also presents a major disadvantage – the absence of objective, quantitative criteria in taking a decision to conclude the investigation. There is also a certain ambiguity on the number of interviewed persons, which cannot be established previously; thus, it depends on the researcher to stop the investigation when he considers the information gathered is satisfactory or sufficient relative to the objective of the investigation.

The purpose of this material is to adapt and develop the sequential method (Wald’s test) for the case of hidden populations, typical situations for sociologic researches where snowball sampling is adequate.

The results obtained in this material, innovative in their development, can contribute significantly to improving sociological research methods in a special area – field sociologic investigation developed in closed groups.

Metaphors of State Disability in Cameroon Anglophone Literature: Assessing the Body in Bate Besong’s Beasts of No Nation and Nkemngong Nkengasong’s Black Caps and Red Feathers PDF
Charles Ngiewih Teke
This essay, which showcases the inextricable link between literature and social and political science, probes into questions of metaphors of state disability with regard to the textualisation of the body as representation and site of exaction of power in Bate Besong’s Beasts of No Nation and Nkemngong Nkengasong’s Black Caps and Red Feathers. The body of the postcolonial subject as site of gruesome ideological inscription, the state as (dis)membered body, and the body of the autocrat/absolute ruler as embodiment of state are the different semantic contexts in which the phenomenology and hermeneutics of body is theorized. The grotesque nature and obscenity of the plays are metaphors of the disability of structures designed in autocratic regimes. The different character portraits are not the undesirable branches of society which must be trimmed; they are metaphors of the state as a sickening and unhealthily fractured body. Critically, the body is not only object, but subject in the context of agency, a site of resistance to codifications inscribed on it. The body is not only acted upon, it acts as well. The narcissistic body of the autocrat represents state pathology and dysfunction which is entrapped in the excess of power.

Face Theory Embodied in Chinese Speech Act PDF
Xianjun Tan
Face theory is an influential theory used to discuss and explain politeness phenomenon, which is based on the western culture. This essay probes into the face theory embodied in the speech act under the background of Chinese culture. The aim of the comparison between face theory in western culture and in Chinese culture is to remove obstacles caused by cultural differences, promote cross-cultural communication and strengthen the awareness of the value of face theory in Chinese culture.

Preventive Healthcare Strategies and Impact among the Asante People of the Early Twentieth Century Gold Coast: A Historical Narrative and Lessons for the Present Sanitation Challenge in Kumase PDF
Samuel Adu-Gyamfi, Prince Osei-Wusu Adjei, Daniel Owusu-Ansah
This article focuses on the development of preventive health care of the Asante people of early twentieth century Gold Coast. Attention has been paid to the public health strategies put in place by the Colonial Administration as well as the efforts and collaboration between Traditional Authorities and the British Colonial Administration to prevent diseases in Asante and Kumase in particular. Lessons for the present sanitation challenge learnt from this historical piece gleaned severally from archival and secondary written sources have been discussed.

Role of Malik in Pukhtoon Tribal Areas PDF
Danish Ahmad, Anwaar Mohyuddin
Pukhtoon society is composed of different tribes, which inhabit in the North Western part of Pakistan. These tribes are led by their respective leaders in their affairs. These tribal leaders are usually known as Maliks. The mechanism through which these Maliks represent the common tribal people is known as Maliki system. The Maliki system in tribal areas was started in 1890 by the British officer Robert Bruce.  The idea behind this was to control the local people indirectly through their own leaders. Their duty was to identify those who were causing disorder, and that time they were given monetary benefits known as Lungi. There were also stipends for common people known as moajab. The Maliki is hereditary and it goes to son after the death of his father. The Maliks are of two types; the lungi-holder, who is recognized by the Political Agent, and non lungi holder who is not recognized by the Political Agent. The Malik distributes the moajab in the community and also collects various fines from the tribes imposed by the government. He settles the disputes among the community members through Jirga (council of elders). He is the legal representative of the government and only he can verify and attest the documents of the people and he has the authority to bail out a person who is arrested by the Political Administration. He serves as the witness and guarantor in land purchasing cases. Malik also serves as authority by allowing the outsiders to reside in the community. The various developmental schemes of the government in the community are only given to Maliks. The appointment on various posts in government departments is carried out through the reference of these tribal chiefs. With the passage of time the powers of Maliks started to curtail. The most significant development in this regard was the introduction of adult franchise in the area in 1997 general elections by the then caretaker government. Before this development, the right to vote and to elect an MNA was only with the Maliks.

Rites of Passage in Baltistan: A Case Study of Village Keris, District Khaplu PDF
Anwaar Mohyuddin, Mamonah Ambreen
This paper deals with research findings regarding rites of passage, the initiation ceremonies such as birth, transitions early days to puberty, coming of age, marriage and death. These ceremonies are ritual events that mark a person's transition from one status to another, between childhood and full inclusion into a tribe or social group. Rites of passage show anthropologists what social hierarchies, values and beliefs are important in specific cultures. The present research was conducted in village Keris in District Khaplu Baltistan. Ethnic distribution of the population along with the initiation ceremonies performed by the natives in Baltistan has been discussed in detail. Their reciprocal relationship, gift exchange especially at the eve of birth and marriages and the meals served during the ceremonies has also been discussed. Social roles performed by different relatives as well as the outsiders have been included. Social hierarchy and the marriage preferential system have also been highlighted. The data presented in this paper has been collected by using qualitative anthropological research techniques.

Message as Fundamental Discursive Commitment of Communication PDF
Ștefan Vlăduțescu

The study is circumscribed Communication Ontology. It is based on two preliminary observations. First of all, as usual linguistic term, the message is clear and passive idea. On the other hand, as a concept, the idea of message is active, confused and elusive that needs clarification.

Our approach is centered on clarifying site zetetic message across meanings generated in the communication process. Since the entire amount of meanings (created, co- constructed, generated, resulting in communication) which constitutes the discourse, is fundamental to detect contours, configuration and figure of the message.

Corpus starting material consists of incidental reflection of the specialist in semiotics Roland Barthes on how to communicate a message such as "condolences".

From meta-analytic examination position of Roland Barthes and other leading specialists positions expressed over the years, like G. Bateson, R. Rommetveit,  G. Gerbner, D. K. Berlo, M. Burgoon, C. R. Berger,  B. J. O'Keefe, J. G. Delia, M. E. Roloff, G. J. Shepherd, W. Douglas, P. D. Battista, M. L. Fleming, W. H. Levie, P. J. Shoemaker, S. D. Reese, J. O. Greene, J. P. Dillard, S. Kemper, K. Kemtes, R. Capurro, J. Holgate, B. R. Burleson, S. R. Wilson, are drawn five ascertaining-conclusive elements. I reflected on these elements making comparisons, building inferences, abductions, inductions and deductions and I set five axiomatic findings.

First axiomatic finding is that there is no pure message or there is no message as message: message exists only in concrete form of discourse. Second axiomatic finding is that communication message is the nucleus of the meanings of the discourse. Third axiomatic finding is that, in fact, the message is the rationale of the discourse. Fourth axiomatic finding is that message production and discourse production are parallel and concatenated. The fifth axiomatic finding is that the message determines the form, type, shades and tones of the significance of the discourse.

A Psychometric Assessment of Health Literacy Measures among Youth in a Residential Treatment Setting PDF
Steven Hoffman, Alexandra L. Trout, Timothy D. Nelson, Jacqueline Huscroft-D’Angelo, Justin Sullivan, Michael H. Epstein, Cynthia Gibbons
Minimal research has focused on the health literacy status of adolescents, and few measures have been validated among specific subgroups of youth. One such group is youth living in residential treatment centers. It is currently unknown how well this group is able to read, understand, and use health-related information. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of three widely-used health literacy measures among a group of youth at a large residential care facility located in Omaha, NE. Results indicate that all measures are psychometrically adequate for use among this population. Study limitations and implications are provided.

Using Research Workshop to Assist Senior Members Develop Competence in Academic Writing in a Public University PDF
Simon Gyasi Nimako, Humphrey Danso, Francis Donkor
Academics are expected to have good academic writing expertise since writing scholarly articles and getting them published in scholarly journals is a core activity in the career of an academic. The paper reports an intervention to assist senior members (SMs) who have limited experience in academic writing to improve upon their academic writing expertise. The main intervention was the use of a five-day research workshop. Fifteen SMs of the College of Technology Education, Kumasi of the University of Education, Winneba in Ghana participated in the workshop. Interviews and structured questionnaire were used to collect data on perceived improvement in respondents’ academic writing expertise after their participation in the workshop. The results showed that, through the workshop, there was significant improvement in participants’ motivation for academic writing and their ability to write effectively, the main sections of a research paper (e.g., Introduction and the problem statement, literature review and hypotheses, data analysis, methodology, discussion and implications, and conclusion). Implications and recommendations for management have been discussed and limitations have been noted. The study contributes to the literature in the area of faculty development in higher education.

The Main Construct of the Chinese Bouyei College Learners’ ECA PDF
Jianhua Wei
The study in use of the FLCAS investigated 320 Chinese Bouyei college learners’ English classroom anxiety (ECA) based on Horwitz et al’s model of the general FL anxiety construct, i.e., communication apprehension CA), test anxiety (TA), and fear of negative evaluation (FNE), as well as the relationship between such ECA construct and the four independent variables, i.e., gender, field of study, level of academic year, and level of college. The results illustrate that although the levels of the overall ECA construct were moderate, some individual dependent variables were found as “high-level” anxieties within each of the three ECA components; significant differences were partly found between the three ECA components and the independent variables. Analyses and discussion were made with relative indications for instructors as to what the results really mean and how they could pay attention to for the purpose of helping resolve the problems of the Bouyei college learners with various sorts of anxieties.

Private Sector Capacity in the Management of Urban Solid Waste in Ghana – A Study of Zoomlion in the Wa Municipality PDF
Patrick Aaniamenga Bowan
Urban waste management is drawing increasing attention, as citizens observe that too much garbage is lying uncollected in the streets, causing inconvenience and environmental pollution, and being a risk to public health. Although government authorities apply all the means at their disposal, the piles of wastes only seem to grow from day to day. Some people suggest that private sector participation is the only way to provide solid waste management services. The objective of this paper is to assess the capacity of Zoomlion to manage urban solid waste in the Wa Municipality. The techniques used in this study were survey questionnaires, key informants interviews and focus groups discussions. The study revealed that Zoomlion lacks both the expertise and the equipment that are necessary for effective urban solid waste management. The study thus recommend that Zoomlion should employ waste management experts such as planners and engineers; and procure waste management equipment such as tipper trucks, tractors, front end loaders and landfill compactors to ensure effective urban solid waste management in the Wa Municipality.

Politico-economic Factors as Alternative to National Culture as Explanatory Factor in Cross-Cultural Psychology PDF
Seth Oppong, Collins Badu Agyemang, Helen Kwansema Arkorful
In this paper, we examine how behavioural differences observed in cross-cultural studies are explained and the accuracy of such explanation. Often researchers fall on culture as an elucidation for the differences observed. However, we demonstrate in this paper how cultural explanation offers arguably a feeble and impractical scientific explanation for behavioural differences in transnational studies. It was shown that when psychologists refer to cultural differences to explain the observed behavioural differences, they are in fact explaining the observed behavioural differences with the expected differences in behaviour associated with societies to which the research participants belong respectively. However, it is concluded that a cultural explanation is an acceptable explanation for incompatibility and lack of fit for the import or export of best practices from one society to another but not an acceptable explanation for differences in the observed behaviours. In its place, politico-economic factors are offered as alternative, viable, and valid scientific explanations.

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