Vol 3, No 1

Table of Contents

Articles

Corporate Personhood and American Democracy: A Natural Remedy PDF
William Matthew McCarter
Recent court cases such as “Citizens United have ignited the debate about whether or not corporations are “persons.”  The issue of personhood reveals the rights and responsibilities the corporation does and should have in our society.  This essay looks at legal precedence to address whether or not corporations should have personhood, and if so, what the consequences of such a designation would be.

Agricultural Trade Face to Non-Tariff Barriers: A Gravity Model for the Euro-Med Area PDF
Imen Trabelsi

At first, Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) and environmental standards have been aimed at protecting human health, animal and plant safety as well as the environment, wildlife and human security. However, overbearing usage of NTBs can significantly restrict trade. In this regard, many experts hold the view that agricultural exports from developing countries are adversely affected by NTBs. With respect to the present study, the objective is to quantify the actual impact of non-tariff barriers on agricultural trade in the Euro-Med area for the two years 1996 and 2008. For this purpose, a Gravity model use multilateral resistance variables (BNT TTRI) has been applied. Moreover, we have opted for a cross-sectional estimate of bilateral flows between the set of countries making up our sample. Two "dummy" variables are then introduced to specify the non-tariff barriers effects on imports of each block apart. The achieved results show that the coefficients of the standard gravity equation turn out to be significant and bear the expected signs. These indices of trade restrictiveness appear to be significant and negative, reflecting the restrictive effect of tariff and nontariff barriers on these countries ‘agricultural trade. Yet, these two variables evolution has shown a degradation of their effects on such a trade. It is also worth noting that the EU imports from the SEMC have proven to be affected by the first block imposed NTBs exclusively for the year 2008. As for the SEMC imposed on EU exports, they have had a negative and significant impact for the two years: 1996 and 2008.

Idealism versus Realism: Expectations and Challenges of Beginning Teachers in Three Districts of Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe PDF
Kudzayiishe Mudzingwa, Snodia Magudu
This study explored beginning teachers’ expectations and the challenges that they encounter during the first year of entry into the profession. The 24 participants for the study were drawn from a population of 90 new teachers who had just completed a 4 year undergraduate pre-service teacher training programme at a local university. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics. The study established that, on joining the teaching profession, participants had some basic expectations relating to such aspects as the types of schools they would be deployed to, remuneration, availability of requisite resources and infrastructure, professional support and the nature of students they would teach. However, these expectations turned out to be at variance with the realities within school settings and the novices experienced many challenges in their new roles as teachers. The study recommends that interventions be put in place to socialise new teachers into the new settings and enable them to settle down smoothly and perform effectively in the classroom.

Entrepreneurship Education and Employment Stimulation in Nigeria PDF
I. A. Akhuemonkhan, L. Raimi, A. O. Sofoluwe

Nigeria is a nation of paradox, blessed with enormous wealth, but larger proportion of the citizens live in abject poverty and face worsening unemployment. In a bid to mitigate the scourge of poverty and unemployment, previous regimes initiated diverse poverty reductions polices (PRPs) with the objectives of boasting industrial production and level of employment thereby checkmating joblessness, hopelessness and crime. Despite the various PRPs, the hydra-monster poverty and unemployment have remained endemic judging by official statistics published by reliable bodies. The failures of previous PRPs precipitated the passionate romance with Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and compulsory inclusion of entrepreneurship education in the curricula of the three levels of higher education in Nigeria. This paper examines entrepreneurship education and employment stimulation in Nigeria. The authors employed systematic collection of quantitative data and subjected them to econometric analysis on the basis of which informed conclusions were drawn. On the strength of the data sourced, analysed and interpreted, it was discovered that entrepreneurship development could be effective tools for poverty reduction, stimulating employment as well as fast-tracking realisation of universal primary education and promoting gender equality. The paper recommended that institutions must imbibe a creativity training. This creativity can help the individual view problems from different perspectives. Institutions must intensify the integration of entrepreneurship in education systems.

An Investigation into Care-Label Knowledge on Textile Products by Chesvingo Residents in Masvingo Zimbabwe PDF
Isabel M. Mupfumira, Nyaradzo Jinga
The study examined knowledge of consumers on the care labels found on textile products. A qualitative survey was conducted to collect data for the study from the residents of Chesvingo high density suburb in Masvingo, Zimbabwe. The population of the study comprised women in Chesvingo, retail shops and flea markets in the city of Masvingo. The participants were drawn using convenience and availability sampling. The study involved three retail shops, two flea markets and ten women from Chesvingo residential area. Data was collected through the interview, questionnaire and observation. It was established by the study that some clothing from both the retail shops and flea market did not have care information. It was also established that most of the women did not follow information on the care labels due to lack of knowledge on their meanings and application. The study recommends community based teaching programs on care labels, and that all textile products should have care labels to facilitate proper care of textiles.



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