Vol 8, No 2

Table of Contents


Analysis of the Threats of Strategic Surprises in the Form of National Energy Crisis PDF
Budi Yulianto, Chandra Wijaya
The objectives of research are: 1.To identify aspects, components and indicators of National Energy Security (KEN); 2. To formulate KEN Index; 3. To measure the current and the future KEN Index (2015, 2020, 2025); 4. To identify potential strategic surprises in the form of national energy crisis and 5. To analyze what kind of intelligence solutions need to be done by the government. Theories used are: Grabo’s Warning Intelligence theory, Handel’s Strategic Surprise theory, and also using several analysis’ tools, such as: trend analysis, pattern analysis, and anticipatory analysis. For energy resilience calculation, it adopted aspects from Asia Pacific Energy Research Center (APERC) with component and indicator references from World Energy Council, Energy Resources Technology Development Center-BPPT, and The National Resilience Institute (LEMHANAS). The result of this research are : 1.KEN Index consists of 4 aspects, 9 components and 15 indicators; 2. KEN Index formula is as follow: KEN= 0.39 (Availability) + 0.23 (Affordability) + 0.23 (Accessibility) + 0.15 (Acceptability); 3.Current KEN condition is in susceptible condition, similarly in 2015,2020 and 2025; 4.Indonesia has a potential occurrence of National Energy Crisis’ Strategic Surprising Attack, which can cause economic, social and political instability, which in the end will offend Indonesia’s security stability; and 5. Intelligence solutions to anticipate strategic surprising attack not to happen are based on 4 scenarios.

Evaluation of the Quality of Hand Moulded Sandcrete Block in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria PDF
D.N. Nwaigwe, E.A. Ogwu, M.C. Ugonna, O.D. Atakpu, A. Edom
The durability of a building is to a great extent determined by the quality of materials used of which sandcrete block is one of the materials. This paper looks into the quality of blocks produced by block industries in Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria to ascertain its water absorption ratio and compressive strength. A Total of fifteen block industries were visited and five samples from each were collected and subjected to laboratory test. The analysis of results obtained was compared with the Nigerian industrial standard (NIS). The absorption rate of the sandcrete blocks was found to be higher than the 12% minimum requirement of the NIS; 2007. The compressive strength values of the sandcrete blocks ranges from 0.81N/mm2 and 1.25N/mm2 which when compared with NIS, was found to be below the minimum requirement of the NIS; 2007.  Inadequate mix ratio was observed to be one of the factors of poor quality sandcrete block production in the area. This paper recommends for compliance monitoring by the various regulatory body to ensure good quality of sandcrete block production.

Socio-Demographic Assessment of Surrounding Community to a Material Recovery Facility (MRF) and a Dumpsite: The Case of Lapu-Lapu City, Philippines PDF
Van Ryan Kristopher R. Galarpe
This study assessed the socio-demographic profile of surrounding community to a Material Recovery Facility (MRF) and a dumpsite in Lapu-Lapu City, Philippines. A total of twenty-two (22) households were interviewed using survey questionnaire instrument assessing household profile, opportunities, water resource and utilization, health status and services, waste management practices, and perception to disposal sites management. Result showed that most of the households were scavengers, microfinance businessmen, and material recovery facility (MRF) contract workers earning below the per capita poverty threshold. Prevalence of diarrhea, gastrointestinal, and respiratory diseases were likely common and medical services availed were largely dependent on barangay clinic and government hospitals. The use of groundwater for bathing, washing, cleaning, and cooking other than drinking exists. Domestic waste disposal of the surveyed households were complex involving collection, dumping elsewhere, recycling, and burning. Considering the current condition of the studied area it is recommended to establish an analysis on the impact of the MRF and the dumpsite to the groundwater resources and comprehensive health evaluation among households.

Considering Hybridisation of Form and Function in Overarching Movement and Designed Objects PDF
Stephen T.F. Poon
In this paper, a critical examination of architectural and design over the last century was conducted in the aim of recognising the dichotomies of modernist and postmodernist design approaches, and in understanding their intrinsic differences, to find the characteristics of form and functions which may produce ideal outcomes in the development of contemporary architectural and lifestyle goods. A review of literature traces the debate of ‘form vs. function’ that views craftsmanship and production technology differently. A critical inquiry is launched to understand the social and historical significance that have influenced the growth of aesthetic ideologies in post-war Europe. With reference to the classical rationalistic assumptions of architect Louis Sullivan and historian Joseph Rykwert, this research attempts to analyse the impact of ‘form vs. function’ through a series of case studies presenting the ideals of modern aesthetic appeals. To prove the endurance of both ideologies, examples of architectural approaches and machine-wrought home furnishing were studied. The endurance and legitimacy of modernism was demonstrated, from the principle that “form follows function” where architectural style is concerned, but that has “swallowed function” in the context of mass produced goods for lifestyle use. This evidence led to a discussion of the possibility of hybrid of form, function and cultural sensibilities. In the conclusion, an argument is framed for contemporary design to be shaped on a larger organic vision, in order to develop more fluid aesthetics for today’s cultural spaces and objects. Although modernism and postmodernism approach craftsmanship and production differently, this paper argues for a hybridisation of the twin pillars of form (ornamentation) and function (utility or usefulness) as the ideal outcome of contemporary architecture and design practice; that neither technological rationalism, spatial dynamics, historical significance nor social function should predominate in legitimising today’s cultural forms, but that all play complementary roles.

Plantain Theory of Sustainable Development PDF
Etim Okon Frank
The essence of this study was to explore the feasibility of designing a theory of Sustainable Development for Africa and specifically, Nigeria.  This was because; the dominant   form of development is not sustainable. The impetus for this study, rest on the fact that human species augment its kind, however, the natural resources required are exhaustible, the environment for hosting human beings, is degraded geometrically by human activities. There is a problem, waiting for the future generation of Africans and Nigerians. The study was approached from the ‘explorative research’ perspective, with ‘musa paradisica’ (plantain), adopted as metaphor of the theory because it constantly reproduces itself. Thus, any element of Sustainable Development must be regenerative in nature. The approach yielded certain fundamentals of Sustainable Development as identified in the case study of ‘Singapore’ under ‘Lee Kuan Yew’ to include; benevolent and patriotic leadership, which would embark on national investment which reproduces its kind for the present generation to meet their needs, without depleting natural resources for future utilization, human capital accumulation, State directed investments among others. These and many others, should regenerate itself as the ‘plantain tree does for its cultivators. This was the essence of plantain theory of Sustainable Development.

Financing Housing Transformation in Informal Settlements in Jordan PDF
Jamal Ahmad Alnsour
This paper aims to examine how housing transformation is financed in informal settlements in Jordan. A quantitative method was seen as an appropriate approach to deal with the research objectives. The Baqa’a Palestinian refugee camp was targeted as the biggest informal settlement in terms of the number of population and housing units. Findings reveal that construction and housing transformation took place over three separate periods of time and was influenced both by increasing family size over time and improvement in a family’s income. Irregular financing played a major role in increasing housing transformation and expansion of informal settlements. Regression analysis results demonstrate that irregular financing has a significant impact on housing transformation. As a result, this paper confirms that the process of construction and housing transformation is incremental.

On the Effect of Hydraulic Retention Time and Loading Rates on Pollutant Removal in a Pilot Scale Wetland PDF
O.E. Ewemoje, A.Y. Sangodoyin, A.T. Adegoke
This study examines the potential of Coix lacryma jobi commonly known as Job tears as a wetland plant, and the effect of short Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) and loading rates on the treatment efficiency of a vertical flow constructed wetland.  Effluents from an anaerobic lagoon system were collected and used as influents for the constructed wetlands. The influents were subjected to 3, 5 and 7 days HRT and 43.73 and 19.91 m3/m2/day loading rate, over a period of 6 weeks. Results from the study shows that the control cell in the system was effective in the removal of phosphorus, (PO4), Ammonia, Ammonium, COD, TDS, DO, and TSS at the higher HRT of 7 days. Similarly, the level of treatment increased as a result of higher HRT, except for the pH which showed no significant difference. Loading rates of 19.91 m3/m2/day at 7 days HRT was effective in the treatment of phosphorus, PO4, COD and TSS with removal efficiency of 89.1, 84.4, 92.0 and 61.3 % respectively. Parameters such as NH4+-N, NH4, NH3, TDS showed significant removal by the wetland system at a loading rate of 19.91 m3/m2/day and HRT of 7 days.  Coix lacryma jobi as a wetland plant, at HRT of about 7days and much lower loading rates is capable of removing pollutants in wastewater.

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