Vol 6, No 1

Table of Contents

Articles

Sustainability’s Inner Conflicts: From ‘Ecologism’ to ‘Ecological Modernization’ PDF
Mohamed El-Kamel Bakari

Ever since its inception, the project of sustainable development has constituted a challenge to deeply entrenched political, economic, and social beliefs in modern societies. Now matured, the project seems to be highly incompatible with the predominant neoliberal capitalist economic system, constitutes a nuisance to the structure of global governance, and is a noticeably controversial issue in North-South politics. However, the project itself was born out of a conflict between two opposing needs – the need for continuous economic growth on the one hand, and the need to protect the environment and achieve intra-generational and intergenerational social equity, on the other. This article argues that reconciling the needs for economic growth with concerns for the environment has been a very intricate and thorny process, hence the controversy over sustainable development’s definition, aims, and feasibility. By categorizing, examining, and analyzing sustainable development’s inner conflicts, this articles aims at achieving a deeper understanding of today’s sustainability stalemate and potential ways to overcome it. A special focus is placed on the implications of the recent prominence of ecological modernization, especially in the developed countries, on the evolution and integrity sustainable development.

The Need for a Sustainability Strategy for Regional Development Programmes – Using the Example of the Podravje Region in Slovenia PDF
Ana Vovk Korze
According to statistics, the Podravje region has a critical groundwater balance, polluted soil, agriculture as the predominant activity plays no role within the region. The priorities set in the Regional development programme (RDP) for the Podravje region for the period from 2007 to 2013 relate to economic development, which does not show any liveliness. To determine the sustainable approach of the programme the links between the economic, social, environmental and human capital were explored with the help of the four-capital method and the sustainability flower method. If the priorities that arise from the programme do not fit the situation in the region and if the capitals are not linked to one another, such a document cannot work. This was proven by the analysis of the regional programme for the Podravje region that showed that movement towards a sustainability strategy is hardly noticeable.

An Entrepreneurial Tourism Project through Agro-Tourism Farm in Iran PDF
G. Olya Hossein, Habib Alipour, Sara Dalir
This study aims to provide a mechanism that helps to achieve sustainable development through the implementation of Agro-tourism plans. Clustering theory employed to provide a technical guideline for execution of the project as a sustainable approach for improvement of welfare of marginal communities. A medium scale entrepreneurial project proposed – “Agro-tourism complex”. Results of this research produced useful implications for both public and private sector. Study revealed that such projects have potential for job creation, inverse migration, sustainability, and land conservation. The study is based on conceptual research method (Shuang et al, 2013). The study revealed that the welfare of marginalized indigenous communities, where the clusters of potentially available tourism products exist, could be improved dramatically if government policies and rural communities involve in shared vision.

Challenges and Possible Panacea to the Municipal Solid Wastes Management in Nigeria PDF
O. S. Amuda, S. A. Adebisi, L. A. Jimoda, A. O. Alade
This paper provides overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Nigeria. Different areas through which the challenges can be tackled in order to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. With increasing global change pressures (population explosion, haphazard rapid urbanization, climate change etc.), coupled with existing un-sustainability factors, cities in developing countries are most likely to experience difficulties in efficiently managing MSW. The unplanned urbanization growth will definitely lead to huge problems on governments especially for meeting the increasing demand for proper and healthy municipal services. The growth results in increasing quantity and complexity of the generated wastes and overburdens. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural–urban migration is to be managed. Communal efforts of local, state and federal government, the stakeholders, Non-Governmental Organizations and the private sector are paramount to attaining high level of development and sustainable MSWM.

Competitiveness as an Indicator of Sustainable Development of Tourism: Applying Destination Competitiveness Indicators to Ethiopia PDF
Tegegne Anteneh Wondowossen, Nobukazu Nakagoshi, Yotsumoto Yukio, Rob H.G. Jongman, Assefa Zerihun Dawit
Competitiveness can be applied to predict the economic sustainability of tourism in destinations which has been measured in terms of leakages and linkage related to employment and income generation opportunities to the destinations. This article examines destination competitiveness of Ethiopia based on the analyses of administrative records, academic journals, face-to-face discussion with the key industry players and email communication. The main objective of this study is to assess sustainability of economic benefits of tourism for Ethiopia by applying destination competitiveness indicators. The result shows that potential destination competitiveness is significant for the growth of tourism and its economy especially to employment and income generation in Ethiopia. As the competitiveness of Ethiopia is being improved, it will result in the increase of tourist arrivals that will sustain economic benefits of tourism.

Methodology for Monitoring the Qualitative and Quantitative Features of the Phenomenon of Vandalism in Open Spaces Using GIS PDF
Mohamed Al-Barmalgy, Ahmed Amin, Rasha Mohamed Shaban

Residential urban spaces affect residents’ behavior, and their reactions differ towards it according to inhabitants’ classification and style of planning these spaces. Caring for urban spaces is translations for those who are caring for Architecture to find solutions for the city residents to improve the level and performance of spaces between the buildings and the nature of behavior of users within it. Urban spaces are bases for developing social relations among residents as without these spaces, it’s difficult to develop these relations, which is reflected on no control giving an opportunity for vandals to practice criminal activities without control. Vandalism is one of the hostile behaviors in the urban environment. It’s a reflection of many psychological, social, and economical and others. It also represents the satisfaction and engaging the space and its suitability for the users’ needs with all their ages’ stages.

So stating geographical information system mechanism, and mixed methods for quantitative and qualitative methods, and the possibility of integration of data to study vandalism phenomenon’s variables to form decision making tool for policies and plans followed to avoid vandalism’ s  behavior.

Some Issues on Rural Women’s Informal Sector Activities in Jigawa State, Nigeria PDF
Nuratu Mohammed
The study examined the spatial distribution of the informal sector activities engaged in by women in rural areas of Jigawa state by means of taking inventory of these activities with a view to ascertain whether there is any variation between the villages and analyse and explain the factors or reasons for this. Ten settlements were randomly picked after initial stratification of the study settlements according to the four cardinal directions: North, south, west and east .Stratified random sampling was used to select a grand total of 270 samples proportional to the population of the sampled settlements. Field observation and the focus group discussion were used to collect information. The data collected was analysed through the use of descriptive statistic and the chi square statistical technique. The result of the study shows that the informal types of activities engaged in by women  can be categorised into four major types namely; arts and crafts, farming , processing and petty trading, with petty trading( 41%) being the dominant. The chi square analysis shows significant difference in investment and profit across the study settlement. The recommendation of this paper is that women need to be educated on new methods / innovation in the marketing/production of goods and service meant to add value, expand production and increase profits and income. In addition women need to be assisted by government and stakeholders with soft loans to expand their business or start a business of their own.

Analyzing and Evaluation of Land Use in Maragheh City PDF
Omid Mobaraki, Zahra Afzali Guroh, Amene Shaikhahmadi
Nowadays the land use and civil environment both from natural and skeletal view and also from economic and social view has encountered qualitative changes. It's obvious that using from ground and environment as an essential public source and general property must be done under a systematic plan. A proper planning for a city needs to be aware of its skeletal features and the way to use its available current grounds. This paper intends to survey how to use Maragheh city's grounds, its surfaces and capitation control in order to recognize service deficiencies of current status. The research method used in this qualitative survey is analytic and scaling that the issues and lack of controls has been studied separately on the basis of qualitative and quantities evaluation and with the help of geographical information system (GIS), the controls were analyzed.The results of research shows that from one aspect expanding body of Maragheh city in recent decades has been raised and caused to imbalance in scattering of controls. As Maragheh city with respect to regional conditions consists of potential natural and green environment, other controls especially residential controls has been improved in them. On the other hand capitation of many existing controls doesn't equal with suitable urbanism standards.

Issues and challenges in the Privatized Power Sector in Nigeria PDF
IseOlorunkanmi O. Joseph
Various attempts by successive Nigerian governments at industrialization and rapid economic growth have been hampered by energy infrastructure deficit gap. Constant and adequate power supply is an important condition for industrialization. Many efforts have been made to close this gap including privatization. The economic rationale behind privatization includes efficiency among others. Therefore, the privatization of the power sector is aimed at tackling the myriads of problems in the sector: limited access to power, inadequate generation and usage of power capacity, overlapping/conflicting roles and responsibilities between government and holding companies etc. Apart from the above, unbundling of the power sector is now becoming a global practice. This paper therefore examines the efforts at revamping the sector before privatization/unbundling, with special focus on the issue and challenges that confronts the sector after privatization: inadequacy of gas for firing turbines, community issues over bidding and ownership, cost recovery challenge due to over -priced power plants, transmission issues, the Multi Year Tariffs Orders, end user tariffs, labour and workforce, assets and liabilities of holding company etc. It is the view of this paper that if these issues are solved and the challenges tackled, then would a solid foundation for actualization of Vision 20:2020 laid for a rapid industrial development that will transform Nigeria to a highly industrialized economy.

Socio-Demographic Profile of Scavenging Households in Umapad Dumpsite, Mandaue City Cebu, Philippines PDF
Jay A. Ejares, Ma. Kristina O. Paler, Ma. Erian L. Aguilar
Scavengers being informal settlers are often not provided by the government with basic services. Furthermore, they are often exposed to occupational safety and health hazard and yet they to continue to rely on wastepicking as their major source of income. Upon the implementation of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act (RA 9003) by the city government of Mandaue, this significantly lowered the income of the scavengers by 62.34%. This indicates a conflict of interest between the scavengers and the implementing body. Hence, a comprehensive environmental and socio-economic policy should be planned to identify the needs of the scavengers and address the interest of both parties.

Communication Environment: Context/Situation/Framework PDF
Ștefan Vlăduțescu

The study explores the relationship between the communication behavior and the environment in which it takes place. Meta-analytical approach shows that, in general, the environment has an impact on the communication behavior: any communication behavior is contextualized, is subject to the environment. In an operational taxonomy there are three different specific types of communication environment: the generic context, the specific situation and the special framework. It follows that in relation to communication behavior, the communication environment induces shared influences:

a) the generic context defines a wide spectrum of optional communication behavior,

b) the specific situation determines a set of communication behaviors, and

c) the framework requires the choice of a behavior for a narrow set of communication behaviors relatively standardized.

 



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