Vol 5, No 2

Table of Contents


Economic Growth and Conflicts: Evidence from Nigeria PDF
Martins Iyoboyi
The paper empirically examines the impact of economic growth on conflicts in Nigeria, using annual data for the period 1981 to 2011 and employing the Dynamic OLS methodology. The results indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between conflict, inflation, poverty, economic growth and unemployment. There is evidence in support of a direct relationship between conflicts and Nigeria’s economic growth, in that the incidents of violent conflicts are partly due to the drive for control of national wealth. It was found that macroeconomic instability, poverty and unemployment are significant variables influencing the nature and dynamics of conflicts in the country, suggesting that the nature of growth experienced is not one that is conflicting-reducing. The CUSUM and CUSUMSQ plots indicate parameter constancy in the estimated model. It is recommended that, while economic growth is accorded priority, policies which promote equity, foster mass employment, minimize distortions and reduce poverty need to be enacted and vigourously implemented.

Challenges of Compliance with Multilateral Environmental Agreements: the case of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Africa PDF
Kannan Ambalam
No crisis in world history has so clearly demonstrated the need for closer cooperation and mutual collaboration among States and the increasing interdependence of governments and other stakeholders as the contemporary global environmental crisis. Desertification is one of the serious environmental problems facing the humanity that brings about a gradual and an unnoticed reduction in the productive capacity of land over a period of years. To address the complex environmental problems, governments adopt the instruments of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs). However, the existing gap between the increasing number of international, regional and national legal instruments and the continuous decline of environmental quality and deterioration of natural resources base around the world is perhaps one of the largest contradictions of this age.  This paper explores the challenges involved in compliance with MEAs particular reference to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in Africa.  The UNCCD is a broader and comprehensive in nature. By linking a number of critical environmental concerns with socio-economic developmental challenges, this global treaty has become an important force in ensuring sustainable development in developing countries.  It focuses a large number of cross-cutting thematic areas to address not only the environmental problems but also sustainable development challenges including poverty, hunger and food insecurity in developing countries. Along with its broader coverage, the socio-economic background and technological advancement of African countries pose major challenges to effectively comply with this multilateral agreement.

Judgment of the Local and Regional Programs in Case of Sustainability (Slovenia) PDF
Ana Vovk Korze
Local and regional programs are strategic documents in which are planned activities for the time span of five or more years in advance. In this article we analysed inclusion of sustainable indicators into local and regional programs because in 2013 expires valid period of the majority of available development programs in Slovenia. With the help of the sustainable development literature we created the indicators and checked them in the selected local and regional development programs. Therefore we point out, that these programs were written on weak sustainable basis.

Human Population Growth and Wildlife Extinction in Ugalla Ecosystem, Western Tanzania PDF
George F. Masanja
Incessant human population growth is a major cause of wildlife loss worldwide. Wildlife species, which offer a number of human needs, decline or disappear as human populations clear wildlife habitats for anthropogenic activities. The objectives of this paper are to synthesize the available information concerning human and wildlife populations and to develop a spatial GIS model for the Ugalla Ecosystem to estimate the future impacts of increasing human populations on wildlife populations using a combination of fine-resolution human population data for the years 2002, 2012, and 2050. A survey was conducted to supplement data and support the model on the relationships between human and wildlife population densities. Results indicate that by 2050, many of the presently abundant types of wildlife species will begin to disappear as the number of people in contact with wildlife increases. The paper therefore suggests that burgeoining human population around protected areas must be curtailed to enhance both consumptive and non consumptive forms of tourism in future.

Comparative Study of Rental Values of Two Gated Estates in Lekki Peninsula Lagos PDF
Iroham Chukwuemeka Osmond, Durodola Olufemi Daniel, Ayedun Caleb Abiodun, Ogunbola Mayowa Fadeke
The study which entailed a comparative analysis of rental values of residential properties of restricted access and open access gated estates is aimed at discovering differences in rental values. Analysing these rental values of restricted access (Crown Estate) and open access (Victoria Gargen City) estates in Lekki Peninsula, as case studies will aid investors and policy makers to be better guided in their decision-making processes. To achieve the objective of the study, structured questionnaires were administered to 160 residents of Crown Estate out of which 116 respondents returned their questionnaires filled; 120 questionnaires were administered to the residents of Victoria Garden City out of which 90 questionnaires were retrieved while 45 questionnaires out of the 60 administered to the Estate Surveyors and Valuer’s managing properties in Crown Estate and Victoria Garden City (VGC) were retrieved.  The collected questionnaires were subsequently analyzed using relevant statistical techniques such as the frequency distribution tables and the t-test. The study revealed that being gated had no effect on the choice of residency. However, location was discovered to be a germane feature in the choice of either estate. The result also revealed significant difference in rental values in the two estates. The study therefore recommends appropriate features – such as location and provision of good neighbourhood quality amongst others in the planning of any estate.

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