Vol 2, No 1

Table of Contents


Dairy Production Potential and Challenges in Western Oromia Milk Value Chain, Oromia, Ethiopia PDF
Ulfina Galmessa, Jiregna Dessalegn, Alganesh Tola, Shiv Prasad, Late Mulugeta Kebede

Challenges and opportunities of milk production potential in western Oromia Dairy value chain was studied with the general essence of understanding the status of milk production, marketing and utilization of the area along with the constraints hindering the development of the sector. Seven Towns, namely Ambo, Naqamte, Gimbi, Dambi-Dollo, Baddalle, Mattu and Jimma were purposively selected on the basis of their significance in the dairy production of the region. Altogether 161 dairy farmers dwelling in these peri-urban dairy farming systems were purposefully selected and interviewed individually using a semi-structured questionnaire. The questions posed to the farmers include aspects of dairy cattle production and productivity breeding management, available feed resource and feeding strategy, milk and milk product consumption patterns and marketing, Challenges in milk production and potential opportunities available for the improvement in the dairy sector were assessed. Perusal of the results revealed that there are location differences in cattle holding, milk production, consumption and marketing system. It was found that both local breeds and dairy types (crosses) of animals were kept in the area. The dairy types are mostly Holstein Friesian with different blood levels, and were reported to produce on average more than 3 folds (6.5 lt vs 2.2 lt) of the local animals. Large number of lactating cows and high milk production per household was being reported from Jimma. While small number of cows and low milk production per household was reported from Gimbi of west Wollega zone. It is evident from the result that the demand in dairying is steadily increasing in all the study sites. Results also emphasized the important role of dairying in generating employment in the peri-urban system of Oromia regional State. However, unavailability of improved dairy stock and in adequate A.I. services, shortage of feeds and cost of concentrates, disease challenges and price fluctuation in milk and milk products are some of the bottlenecks that requires systematic planning and intervention from all development practitioners.

Economic-Geographical View of the Status and Perspectives of Agricultural North -Eastern Montenegro PDF
Goran Rajović
Natural resources with which it is disposed of northeastern Montenegro, for example the municipality of Berane, Plav and Andrijevica, reflect the high agricultural potential and a number of comparative advantages in agriculture. However, the orientation of industrialization of the country suppressed the attention of the most important industry, which provides food from which to live, and that is agriculture. Incomplete economic transition is also one of the reasons bad performances of the considered space. It had an effect on the marked decline of the agricultural population. Between 1961 do 2003, agricultural population decreased from 58.4% to 9.1%. In parallel with the decrease in number of agricultural population, reduce the area of arable land and gardens, as well as food production, despite the enviable opportunities in this part of northeastern Montenegro to the contrary. With all this agricultural activity took place in a limited economic conditions, resulting in that it has a relatively small agricultural areas of 67,740 ha, expressed per capita of 0.81 ha. Despite the indisputable fact that the considered area has great possibilities for agricultural development, it still lags behind other regions, both in terms of resources available in agriculture, and the results achieved.

Green Technologies for African Agriculture and Energy and Possible Strategies for Incubation and Development PDF
Mkpado, Mmaduabuchukwu

African agriculture and energy needs are among current issues in developing literature. Using secondary data and extensive literature, the performance of African agriculture with other regions in terms of capacity of export was examined. It found that African agriculture is less competitive.  It further explored classical and new technologies for African agriculture and energy development amidst climate change to remedy the situation. The technologies explores includes integrated aquaculture/crop/energy production system.  Drip irrigation not only for food crops but also for plantation crops, green house technologies such as ‘aeroponics’ for growing potatoes and seawater greenhouse for producing vegetables. The paper examined also the strategies for implementation of the innovation. The discussion explored the use of contact farmers, value chain financing, agricultural cooperatives, school to land agriculture, restructured farm settlement scheme and small medium scale enterprises funding strategy to incubate and developed the innovations. It concludes by opining that the ongoing call for African agricultural transformation can adopt the approached presented in order to create wealth, alleviate poverty and contribute to climate change mitigation and low carbon energy production.

Price Transmission and Integration of Rural and Urban Rice Markets in Nigeria PDF
Chika Agnes Ifejirika, Chukwuemeka John Arene, Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado
This study was designed to analyze the degree and determinants of market integration in rural and urban rice markets in Nigeria using evidence from Enugu State. Issues considered include: level of rice market integration via price movements, structural factors that affect the integration of rice markets and, the problems affecting rice traders in the state. Forty wholesalers and forty retailers were selected for the study. Primary and secondary data were collected and analyzed using co-integration analysis, market integration function and descriptive statistics. Unit Root Test showed that rural and urban prices were stationary at first differencing and were integrated of the order zero, 1(0).  Rice markets in the study area were integrated but the level of integration was low. The Vector Error Correction Model had a coefficient of -0.0061872 which was significant at 1% level and was negative. The Market Integration Function had Coefficient of Determination (R2) of 0.78 showing that the independent variables explained about 78% of the variations in the prices of rice in the rural and urban rice markets. Transportation cost, toll fee, processing cost and storage cost significantly affected the level of market integration. The greatest problems encountered by the rice traders were inadequate finance, high transportation costs/bad roads and poor quality of local rice compared to foreign rice. To improve the level of market integration; transportation, processing, storage, communication and credits facilities should be provided.

Performance and Total Tract Digestibility Responses of Probiotic, Xylanase and Phytase in the Diets of Grower Pigs PDF
Mocherla V A N Suryanarayana
A basal diet was evaluated in 24 male pigs (15.8 kg ±1.07) divided into four groups at random which was fed to all the animals adlibitum. The experiment was carried out in two phases. In phase one, group one (T1) was the control without any feed additive, T1 was added (per quintal) with (g) 100, 120 & 80; 0.305, 0.366 & 0.244 and 12, 14.4 & 9.6 of probiotic (Sacchyromycescerevisiae), xylanase and phytase enzymes, to make T2, T3 and T4 diets, respectively. Initial, final and total weights (kg) in both the phases of the experiment were not significant. Number of days taken to reach the target weight (35 kg) was lower (P<0.05) in T3 and T2 for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Average daily feed intake (kg) and average daily gain (g) were lower and higher in T3 and T2 in phases 1 and 2, respectively and were not significant. The trend was similar for total feed intake (kg), feed conversion ratio and cost of feed per kg production (Rs). The total feed intake in phase one was lower (P<0.05) in T3 than others. The digestibility of organic matter, crude fibre, ether extract and nitrogen-free extract among groups were not significantly different, but the digestibility of crude fibre (CF) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) tended to be more in T3. Crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) digestibility were significantly higher (P<0.05) in T3. It was concluded that the synergism between xylanase, phytase and probiotic enhanced the performance of pigs with a considerable influence on age of the animals and production economy.

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