Vol 7, No 1

Table of Contents

Articles

Sustainable Biomass Production for Energy Strategies in Asia: A Review for Legal and Social Aspects PDF
Rizky Fauzianto, Spyridon Achinas, Vasileios Achinas

Currently, the use of Renewable Energy (RE) has been encouraged in many countries because of its sustainability and environmental benefits. One of RE source that is considered as the largest energy potential is biomass. A study of biomass’ potential availability with its current usage on a worldwide level reveals that around two-fifths of the existing biomass energy potential has been used. Most area of the world use biomass below the available potential. Only for Asia does the current use exceeds its potential. Therefore, increased biomass usage in current practice is possible in many countries. Many studies suggest an alternative solution to cover future demand for renewable energy by increasing utilisation of forest residues and waste from the wood processing industry, i.e. densified biofuels production.

In developing countries of Asia, as in industrialized ones, bioenergy will play a complementary role in conjunction with other renewables. Modern bioenergy use provides opportunities for creating jobs in rural areas, increasing the degree of comprehensive energy coverage, reducing import dependency and – through the use of more efficient technologies – reducing deforestation and energy-linked greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass production should always follow principles of sustainability. This paper specifically examines the role of biomass in developing countries of Asia; it describes some effects of biomass production for energy within social and economic contexts giving information for the existing policy.

The Analysis Of Supply Responsiveness Of Jambi’s Rice Farming PDF
Edi Edison
Farmers’ supply responsiveness and input demand planting rice in Jambi Province were estimated using profit function analysis. The objective of study is to analyze rice farmers’ supply response. Research was conducted in Jambi Province in the year of 2014. Result showed that farmers do maximise their profit in short term and response to price changing efficiently. Changing in real wages were estimated to have a greater impact on rice profit and supplies than changes in the real prices of mechanised land preparation, fertilizer or pesticides. Rice supply elasticity considering their price was closed to one.

Live Cattle as a New Frontier in Commodity Markets PDF
Helyette Geman, Pedro Vergel Eleuterio
The goal of the paper is threefold. First, we present live cattle, an interesting semi-storable commodity which has not often been discussed in the literature. Second, we analyze the spot price trajectories of the US and Brazilian cattle markets over the period 2002-2013, using the first nearby Future as a proxy for the spot price. We find two distinct periods separated by a structural break in October 2007: a first period where Brazilian prices lead US prices, and a second period where both series are cointegrated. Third, in order to globally compare the two Futures markets, we introduce the notion of distance between forward curves and exhibit that not only do spot prices move together in the second period but also that the forward curves show a much higher level of integration, allowing for pair trading strategies.

Economics of Physical Attributes Influencing Cattle Prices in Ngalzarma Livestock Markets, Yobe State PDF
A.B. Mohammed, A.T. Lawal, S.A. Musa
This study examined the physical attributes influence cattle prices in Ngalzarma livestock market in Yobe State, Ngalzarma cattle market in Fune Local Government was purposively selected based on high concentration of cattle and cattle marketers. A total of one hundred thirty (130) Buyers were selected using systematic sampling by truncation on weekly basis for period of 26 weeks. Descriptive statistics, ginni co-efficient and multiple regressions was employed to analyze the collected data. The result of the study revealed that 100% of the respondents were male, 39.7% of cattle buyers were within age group of 31-40years and 96.7% were found to be married. The respondents (52.3%) were small buyers category, 24.9% medium and 22.8% were large scale buyers. Greater percentage of the cattle marketers (63.3%) preferred Red Bororo, 29.2% White Fulani and 7.4% Sokoto Gudali. The Ginni co-efficient model shows that the markets structure was competitive with low Ginni co-efficient of 0.507. The regression results indicated that colour of the ear, shape of the cattle face and type of horn were the factors that influenced the buyer’s preference. Hedonic regression generally showed that female cattle, big carcass size and height were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05), (P < 0.001) and (P < 0.001) respectively with positive coefficient. 1t was therefore recommended that research efforts should target the characteristics of these cattle that buyers are sensitive to so as to enhance profitability production and marketing.

Reduction of Seed-Borne Fungi of the Genus Aspergillus Associated with Egusi Melon Colocynthis citrullus (L.) Seeds Using Chlorine Disinfectants – Implications on Seed Germination PDF
Nwaulari Joy Nwokocha, Charles Ikechukwu Umechuruba, Roland Chima Wokocha, Emma Umunna Opara, John Victor Nwokocha
A laboratory trial was conducted in 2014 at Michael OKPARA University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State of Nigeria to determine the effects of three chlorine disinfectants: potassium chloride, mercuric chloride and sodium hypochlorite on Aspergilus. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus and A. granulosis on seeds of Colocynthis citrullus (egusi melon). 400 seeds were pretreated with different disinfectant at different concentrations (0.1,1.0 and 2.0%) with distilled water as the control and at different time regimes (1, 3, 5 and 7 minutes). The surface sterilized seeds were cultured and incubated at 25±20C for 7days. After which the seeds were examined for fungi growth and identification. Data obtained showed seed treatment with mercuric chloride was most effective in the reduction of A. flavus in C. citrullus seeds. Treatment of C. citrullus seeds with potassium chloride and sodium hypochlorite resulted in significant reduction in percentage recovery of A. flavus when compared with the control (distilled water). However, increase in concentrations of these two chloride disinfectants resulted reduction in percentage recovery of the pathogen but were more effective as surface disinfectants for C. citrullus seeds at low concentrations. From this study therefore to protect the seeds from surface infection and contamination by Aspergillus spp and other micro flora during storage and to maintain their viability status and also considering the toxic implications and environmental hazards of mercuric chloride, sodium hypochlorite becomes a preferred seed disinfectant chemical.

Economics of On-Farm Sorghum – Legume Strip Cropping System in Kano State, Nigeria PDF
A.B. Mohammed, A. H. Wudil, M. I. Daneji, J. M. Jibrin, M. A. Hussaini, I.B. Mohammed
The study was conducted to carry out Economics of Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) on-farm Sorghum-legume strip cropping system in Kano State. Structured questionnaire was used and data were collected from 229 farmers randomly selected from three purposively selected Local Government Areas (LGAs). The Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis, profitability ratios and Paired T-test. The results revealed that 75.6% of the farmers were in active age of within 25-54 years with a mean age of 45 years. Majority of the farmers were male (93.4%); 58.5% had acquired qua’ranic education and 97.4% were married with many household size of between 7-11 household (46.3%).  The results of gross margin showed that the improved practice made a profit of N65, 931.64k/ha and a return on every naira invested of N2.08, compared with N56, 008.62k/ha and a return on every naira invested of N1.94in the traditional systems.  Result on T-test showed that there is significant difference between profits of some improved practices against farmers practice (p< 0.05). The constraints to production experienced by the farmers were high cost of inputs, insufficient fund, inadequate and untimely delivery of farm input, inadequate collaterals/security, inadequate loan/credit facilities, inadequate storage processing and marketing facilities, pest, and diseases. Other less severe problems identified were Striga infestation, unstable produce price and drought spells.  It was concluded that the technology package is more profitable.  It is recommended that farmers should increase land devoted to Sorghum- legume strip cropping system and government and other agencies like ADPs should address the challenges of shortage of extension services, credit supply to farmers, improve marketing system, input supply and affordable price of input.

Salinity Reducing Food Security and Financial Returns from Rice Production in Rwanda PDF
Vicky Ruganzu, Alexis Shirimpumu, James K. Mutegi
Rice is a crucial food crop and source of income for smallholder farmers in Rwanda. Its annual consumption in 2012 was estimated at about 104,000 tons with about 48,000 tons of this covered from imports. In recognition of the great potential of rice in improving food security and household incomes, the government of Rwanda and donors have invested over US$ 10 Million to improve rice production. The average rice yield is estimated at 5 tons/ha but the government rice policy is targeting 7 tons/ha through improved seeds and better agronomy. Most of rice production is done in the marshland. Patches of some crucial marshlands have started exhibiting stunted rice growth, yellowing and low crop yields of less than 3 tons/ha irrespective of use of the right seeds and good agronomy, hence threatening the rice improvement targets. Recently, we evaluated one of the marshlands (Muvumba marshland) to understand the causes for such yield decline. The marshland was demarcated into affected and non-affected patches. The visual and lab analysis of soil and water from affected patches linked declining rice yields to salinity suggesting gradual development of salinity in Muvumba marshland. This paper uses Muvumba data to discuss salinity, the indicators, potential impact of salinity on returns to rice production. Salinity decreased rice yields by about 30% and financial returns by about US$ 1,500 per hectare of affected patches in Muvumba. We recommend remediation of salinity through improved drainage and better fertilizer management. In case these measures do not work, salt tolerant rice species should be adopted for these sites.



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