Vol 2, No 2

Table of Contents

Articles

Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Modern Weather Forecasting: Exploring the Linkages PDF
C.Makwara Enock
Since time immemorial indigenous knowledge systems (IKSs) were used by societies in Africa and the rest of the world for various purposes depending on the needs of the society in question. Wherever humans have settled around the world, being able to predict weather has been necessary since man has never been a passive recipient of environmental bonuses and controls. Knowledge about past disasters and climate in Africa are the accumulated experiences that have been handed down to generations through oral traditions. There is, therefore, need to investigate how traditional knowledge systems can be integrated into agricultural activities in order to minimise losses associated with extremes of climate and weather. The study was, therefore, undertaken with a twin set of objectives. The first objective was to identify, analyse and document local indicators used in IK forecasting over the study area. The second was to assess perceptions of the local communities on the application and reliability of both IK and conventional forecasting in their daily lives  in order to identify the gaps and the needs for improvement .In this study, it is argued that IK can provide significant value and boosts in the improvement of forecasting accuracy and reliability if it will be systematically researched ,documented and subsequently integrated in conventional forecasting system .The results of the research could be useful in conjunction with weather forecasting information from the meteorological office to improve the timing of agricultural operations and disaster management activities.

Feeding Efficacy of Spiders on Sucking Complex of Okra, Abelmoschus Esculentus L. PDF
Hakim Ali Sahito, Muzaffar Ali Talpur, Muhammad Arif Soomro, Abdul Hafeez Mastoi, Khalid Hussain Dhiloo

The experiment was conducted to check the population of sucking insect pests such as; jassid, A. bigutella bigutella (Ishida) whitefly, B. tabacci (G), thrips, T. tabaci (S.) and mites, T. cinnabarinus (Boisd.) in a field condition of okra crop. Homogenous seeds of okra were drilled in rows 75cm apart from each other on well prepared seed bed on February 15, 2011. Where as, the feeding potential of predatory spiders on these pests were evaluated in a laboratory condition. Four prominent predatory spider species such as; Hippasa agelenoides, Cheiracanthium danieli, Argyrodes argentatus and Drassodes sp. were recorded throughout the data collection. Thus, there feeding potential was observed under the laboratory conditions at 25±2oC and the pests were provided. The overall consumption by these two spider species; C. danieli and H. agelenoides consumed maximum (12.30±1.23) and (10.10±1.07) where as, the minimum (9.65±1.39) and (8.35±2.09) pest population by A, argentatus and Drassodes sp. The correlation of all predatory spiders was highly significant with jassid (r2=0.84**), whitefly (r2=0.94**), thrips (r2=0.88**) and mites (r2=0.94**). But the temperature had the low positive correlation with the population among predatory spiders (r2=0.45ns), jassid (r2=0.38ns), whitefly (r2=0.46ns), thrips (r2=0.45ns) and mites (r2=0.53ns). In the behavior of relative humidity had also low positive correlation with the population of predatory spiders (r2=0.31ns), jassid (r2=0.14ns), whitefly (r2=0.25ns), thrips (r2=0.34ns) and mites (r2=0.22ns). However, predatory spiders were found abundantly with their carnivorous habits among the population that showed synchronization with the sucking insect pests in okra crop.

Cost-Effectiveness of Rationalization and Certification of Working Places in Cattle Breeding PDF
Leonid Kovalev, Igor Kovalev
This article touched upon the undertaking work on streamlining and certification of working places, which is an important means to improve the efficiency of the agricultural enterprise. The article discusses some ways of their cope to the certification and rationalization of employment service enterprises agrarian industrial complex of the Republic of Belarus. In the article the economic feasibility of the work in the enterprise to improve the organization of labor, which provides significant savings reserves, primarily save time and labor in agriculture.

Agricultural Areas and Forests: The Case Regions Polimlje-Ibar PDF
Goran Rajović, Jelisavka Bulatović
Among the growth potential regions Polimlje-Ibar primary importance occupies land. The structure of the surface by way of use, applying the method we have found alternate splitter type of secondary distribution of agricultural areas with a higher share of forests and barren land small share (PP3Š2N1). The structure of agricultural land use is predominantly pasture stand type of agricultural land with a higher share of meadows (P4L2). Direction with equal participation of vegetables, animal fodder and fodder grain participation and uncultivated arable land (Po2Sk2Ž1No1), characterized by are use of the structure of arable land. Forest land and commercial forest area in is region, occupying an area of ​​110.010 hectares, which means that 38.71% of the territory Polimlje-Ibar, covered with forest vegetation. Finally, the paper suggests not limiting factors of the optimal exploitation of the land fund. One of the priorities of the European partnership is the application of the concept of sustainable development.

Microcredit and Technical Efficiency of Rural Farm Households in Egba Division of Ogun State Nigeria PDF
O. I. Ambali

This study examined the effect of microcredit on technical efficiency of rural farm households in Egba division of Ogun State. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select 160 rural farm households used for the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, probit regression model and stochastic frontier production analysis. The findings revealed that majority of the rural farm household heads are in their active ages. It was also revealed that most farm household heads are fairly educated with relatively high experienced in farming. The significant factors that determine access to credit among rural farm households as revealed by the probit result include age(p<0.05), farm size(p<0.01), household size(p<0.01), farming experience(p<0.01) and education(p<0.10). The stochastic frontier production function result revealed that farm output increases with farm size(p<0.05), family labour(p<0.05) and hired labour(p<0.05) but decreases with increase in intermediate materials(p<0.10). The inefficiency model revealed that age (p<0.05), farming experience(p<0.05), education(p<0.05), household size(p<0.10) and credit(p<0.05) increase the technical efficiency of the farmers. The mean technical efficiency of 0.69 implies there is room for improvement in the technical efficiency level of the rural farm households by 31 percent. Policy option requires the strengthening of the education of farmers and increase in the level of awareness on the benefit of credit to increase the production efficiency among rural farm households in the study area.



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