Anti Bacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber Officinale and Pipper Nigrum against Some Clinical Isolates

D. W. Taura, S. Lawan, S. M. Gumel, S. Umar, U. F. Sadisu

Abstract


Ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale and Pipper nigrum were evaluated by testing in vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and proteus specie using Agar diffusion method. Proteus specie showed sensitivity to Z. officinale at disc concentration range of 50 to 800µg/ml, Staphylococcus aureus also showed sensitivity to z. officinale at concentration of 100 to 800 µg/ml and Klebsiella pneumonia showed sensitivity at disc concentration of 100 to 800 µg/ml likewise proteus specie showed sensitivity to p. nigrum at disc concentration range of 100 to 800µg/ml and staphylococcus aureus also showed sensitivity to p. nigrum at disc concentration range of 100 to 800µg/ml. However, the Ethanolic extract of z. officinale and p. nigrum showed no lethal or inhibitory effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli at all concentration. The observed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the Ethanolic extraction for proteus species, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia were 50, 100,200µglml respectively for Z. officinale, while for P. nigrum, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were 100 and 200µg/ml for Proteus specie and staphylococcus aureus respectively. The extracts were further subjected to phytochemical tests for the presence of secondary metabolites using standard procedures. The results of phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, Flavonoid, reducing sugar, saponins and steroids in Z. officinale, and alkaloids, Flavonoid, saponins, steroids and tannin in P. nigrum. This indicates that both Z. officinale and piper nigrum has the potential for the production of drugs against pathogenic organisms.

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