Phytochemical and Nutrient Evaluation of the Leaves and Fruits of Nauclea Latifolia (Uvuru-ilu)

Sunday Onyekwere Eze, Obinwa Ernest

Abstract


The Phytochemical and Nutrient evaluation of the leaves and fruits of Naulcea latifolia (Uvuru-ilu) was undertaken because of the wide application of the plant in ethnomedicine. Ethanolic extracts of the plant parts were analysed for their phytochemicals, proximate composition including minerals and some vitamins using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds in the leaves and fruit samples. The leaves of Nauclea latifolia contained tannins 0.374%, alkaloid 2.387%, 0.373% flavonoid, 1.25% saponins, 0.377% phytate and 16.897mg/kg of HCN. The fruit also revealed the presence of 0.214%, 1.407% 0.433%, 0.833%, 0.377% and 9.270mg/kg for tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phytates and cyanogenic glycosides respectively. The proximate analyses of the leaves and fruits revealed that Nauclea latifolia is rich in proteins 12.51%, fats 1.49%, fibre 34.82%, ash 5.46%, carbohydrates 46.69%, moisture 68.93% and dry matter 31.07% in the leaves while the fruit should 15.42%, 1.74%, 35.88%, 8.19%, 38.79%, 44.72% and 55.28% of proteins, fat, fibre, ash, carbohydrates, moisture and dry matter respectively. The analysis also show that the leaves and fruit contain essential minerals such as Ca 52.104, Mg 3.17, K 427.50, P 457.83 in mg/100g w/w basis for the leaves as well as 85.51 Ca, 4.50 Mg, 368.67 K, and 429.86 P. Vitamin A and C analysis for the leaves gave 17.65 mg/100g and 56.74 mg/100g respectively while we got 36.22 and 67.47 respectively from the fruits on a mg/100g basis. The phytochemical analysis supports the extensive use of the leaves and fruits of nauclea latifolia in ethnomedicine in many parts of Africa and the proximate analysis showed that its use in the feeding of ruminants and human consumption of the fruits is a good practice.

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