Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering

Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering (ISSN 2201-8336) is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes papers in all aspects of Bioscience and Bioengineering, including but not limited to: Aerobiology; Anthropology; Biocatalysis; Biochemical Genetics; Biochemistry; Bioinformatics; Bioinformatics; Biological Engineering; Biological Evolution; Biomaterials; Biomathematics; Biomechanics; Biomedical Diagnosis; Biomedical technology; Biomedical Therapy; Biophysics; Bioprocess Design; Biostatistics; Botany; Cytobiology; Developmental Biology; Ecology; Entomology; Enzyme Engineering; Genetic Engineering; Genetics; Horizontal gene transfer; Immunology; Microbiology; Molecular Biology; Nano-Bio-Analysis; Neurobiology; Pathology; Physiology; Protein Engineering; Radiation Biology; Synthetic Biology; Tissue Culture Engineering; Virology; Zoology.

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Vol 8 (2020)

Table of Contents

Articles

Mycoflora Associated with Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Purchased from Major Markets in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria PDF
B.A. Bamkefa, I. Uwaga, O.A. Akintobi, A.O. Adejuwon, E.T. Umezurike, O. Balogun, O.S. Obayemi

Background: Pearl millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses; they are widely grown around the world as cereal crops and have a wide array of uses. They harbor a lot of fungi from field to post-harvest which are capable of posing health hazards to humans and animals. The objectives of this research study were to isolate and identify different fungi associated with millet at different periods of storage and determine their mycotoxin profile. Materials and Methods: Millet samples were purchased randomly from vendors in three major markets situated in three different local governments in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria over a three-month period. The samples were brought to the laboratory in sterile polythene bags. Isolation of fungi from the millet samples was done by direct plating on Saboraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA) incorporated with chloramphenicol to prevent bacterial growth. The plates were incubated at room temperature for 48-72 hours and observed. Results: Pure cultures of fungi were obtained by repeated sub-culturing. A total of fourteen (14) fungi belonging to twelve (12) genera were obtained. Aspergillus fumigatus had the highest (25.7%) frequency of occurrence, with Syncephalastrum spp (6.5%), Rhizopus spp (5.7%), Fusarium spp (3.6%), Alternaria brassicicola (2.8%), Curvularia spp (3.2%), Mucor mucedo (2.4%), Gonatobotrys simplex (1.2%), Acladium conspersum (0.5%), Penicillium spp (2.8%), Aspergillus niger (21.2%),  Aspergillus flavus (23.6%) while Nigrospora oryzae and Sporendonema spp had the lowest (0.4%) frequencies. The mycotoxin profile quantification revealed the presence of four aflatoxins: AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 in the millet samples with the samples purchased from Oje having the highest aflatoxin level of 897 ppb. Conclusion: There is the need to adopt strict hygiene, storage and preservative practices to prevent fungi from infecting millet samples with a view to controlling their aflatoxin level.

COVID-19 in Nigeria, West Africa: An Update PDF
Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon, Olubunmi Sharon Obayemi, Olaleke David Odeleye, Victoria Anatolyivna Tsygankova

Background: Recently, SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) identified and classified as a single stranded (positive sense) RNA virus causes COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019). It was first detected in China. Symptoms of the disease include severe acute respiratory syndrome. The disease has become pandemic affecting the globe. No vaccine has been discovered to be of impact in the control of this deadly disease. MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus) recognizes DPP4 (dipeptidyl peptidase 4) as its receptor. ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2) is a receptor for SARS-CoV. COVID-19 is zoonotic, probably of feline origin or from bats. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine sulphate and zinc in combination with the antibiotic azithromycin or doxycyline is currently under clinical trial and being investigated as a possible potential therapy for COVID-19. Investigation: Presently, in Nigeria, West Africa, infection with SARS-CoV-2 is being managed with seemingly minimal mortality. In this investigation, the alcohol extract of a combination of Garcinia kola seeds and Zingiber officinale leaves, with medicinal value, used locally in some western parts of Nigeria, is being explored as a potential therapeutic application for COVID-19.

 



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