Vol 4, No 1

Table of Contents


The Role of Government in the Establishment and Development of SMEs in Zimbabwe: Virtues and Vices PDF
Farai Maunganidze
The study focused on the role of the government on the establishment and development of small to medium enterprises. The study was conducted in Harare. Purposive sampling was used to sample the 42 respondents who participated in the study. Interviews were used with 40 SMEs managers as well as with 2 senior officials with the Ministry of Small to Medium Enterprises. Results have shown that the government acts both as a stumbling block and as facilitator to the growth of SMEs in Zimbabwe. It also emerged that most of the provisions offered by the government to facilitate the establishment and development of SMEs are mostly rhetoric and difficult to access. Participants have argued that the majority of provisions and policies concerning SMEs are conducted along political lines and seem to be talk shows, especially towards elections. Participants have also argued that corruption is rife with the Registrar of Companies Department forcing some SMEs to abandon the formalisation process, choosing to operate as informal traders or fail to renew their operating licenses. The existence of the Ministry of Small to Medium Enterprises and the Small Enterprises Development Company has been viewed by some participants as positive steps towards the recognition and development of SMEs in Zimbabwe. However, these institutions are usually underfunded by treasury. As the major solution to the ills bedevilling the existence of SMEs in Zimbabwe, the study has revealed that the government should review its policies and makes sure existing policies are being diligently and professionally executed.

Appraisal of the Informal Sector and How It Flooded Residential Property Market in Nigeria PDF
Mohammed Yahaya Ubale, David Martin, Seow Ta Wee
The vast bulk of households, especially those in an informal settlement, live in jammed conditions, surrounded by substandard houses, sometimes located in areas prone to various hazards which do not offer satisfactory resistances against diseases. The home is the elementary requirement to a better health delivery system not the hospital (WHO, 1999).  Basically, only 25% to 30% Nigerians, usually top government officials and prosperous or fortunate individuals enjoy a decent resident (Azzan et al 2005).   Aim of this article will be accomplished through the following objectives: to examine the contemporary practices of the urban residential property market in Nigeria; to scrutinize activities of the informal sector in the urban residential property market in Nigeria; and to evaluate the nemesis of the activities of the informal sector in the urban residential property market in Nigeria. Appraisal of relevant texts established that informal housing have flooded or seem to outnumber the formal and or planned housing in the residential property markets in Nigeria (Chirisa, 2008; Gerber, 2007). Legitimacy of the informal housing seems to be no longer an issue. Regrettably, the terrible and dreadful environmental situations related to informal sector activities create a chief threat to the well-being of residents' lives. The faults of government planning controls, and the unsystematic housing developments coupled with the informal sector activities have generated chaotic and unsafe urban environments. Finally, residential units built informally collapses frequently, claim innocent lives and discard wealth (Chirisa, 2008; Gerber, 2007). Informal sector housing, particularly those for residential purposes cause real hazards for the urban people who don't have enough money for medicine.

The Roles of Entrepreneurship Education in Ensuring Economic Empowerment and Development PDF
Kennedy Ediagbonya
This research paper is specifically prepared to examine the roles of Entrepreneurship Education in ensuring Economic empowerment and Development. The conceptual framework developed by Shapero and Sokol in 1982 was used in illustrating the series of stages and processes that eventually give birth to the formation of a business venture; and three (3) stages were identified in the model. The concept of Entrepreneurship education was briefly examined in relation to Economic Development. Economic Development was described as the quantitative and qualitative changes in the economy. The author briefly examined the concept of Entrepreneurship Education including its goals and objectives. A section was devoted to examining the roles of Entrepreneurship Education in ensuring economic empowerment and development in Nigeria. One of the major recommendations advanced in this paper was that Government should make accessible loans available for graduates of the programme so as to start up their businesses.

Software Asset Management Changes in Developing and Developed Economies PDF
Darren Bean!
This paper will discuss how changes to intellectual property laws can cause a need for changed business and management practices, particularly in regards to software asset management (SAM).  I will examine various stances regarding intellectual property, causes for the divide in attitudes, and how developed nations (particularly the U.S.) are forcing the world towards a stronger intellectual property regime, regardless of its detriments.  As a case study this paper will use information from the Korean "crackdown" against illegal software use in 2011-2012 and discuss changes to Korean law resulting from the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States as well as prospective changes in Korean SAM practices.  The potential for harm to businesses (through losses due to legal defense and lawsuits) is tremendous and therefore I will also discuss how management attitudes must change to respond to ever-intensifying legal pressures and threats, including a basic outline of the goals of SAM.

Gender Diversity Management in the Banking Sector in Masvingo Urban, Zimbabwe PDF
Mashavira Nhamo
The study sought to explore banking employee perceptions regarding the promotion of women into top positions and the extent to which diversity in terms of gender is accommodated and celebrated within the banking sector in Masvingo urban. The study got inspired by the ever changing workforce demographics within banks caused by various legislation on gender mainstreaming and empowerment, resulting in more women venturing into areas often considered sacrosanct and a preserve for men. However, policies and practices remain basically rigid to accommodate such trends.  The study focuses primarily on both employee and management perceptions on issues that have to do with gender diversity. The study adopted both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies.  Three banks were purposively sampled from a total of eleven. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with seven employees in management while questionnaires were administered to a further twenty six systematically selected clerical and non-clerical employees. Secondary sources like staff handbooks and ethical codes were also reviewed. The study found out that most employees and a part of management mistook diversity management with equal employment opportunities and affirmative action. It also established that while individual differences in terms of gender were not celebrated in most banks, prejudices against women were not exposed and challenged by way of workshops and training .It is recommended that bank policies be reviewed to accommodate the interests of women.

"I am considering leaving soon" "“ Turnover Intentions of Academic Librarians in Zimbabwe PDF
Willard Nyamubarwa
The interest to investigate the turnover intentions of academic librarians in Zimbabwe stems from the fact the labour market in Zimbabwe is characterized by high levels of employee turnover and increasing low levels job security. Academic libraries like any other employer have therefore found themselves wanting in providing adequate services including adequately remunerating their employees thus leaving the employees with no option but to look beyond their employers as a source of livelihood. An e-questionnaire was designed purposively targeting 65 academic librarians in 10 state owned and 3 private universities across Zimbabwe. Additional data was gathered by purposively sampling 6 senior librarians for interviews to triangulate the data gathered through the e-questionnaires. Salaries and conditions of service, job performance, career growth, work environment, job satisfaction, supervisory style, promotional opportunities, and employee commitment were identified as the factors shaping turnover intentions of academic librarians in Zimbabwe.

You Cannot Give What You Do Not Have: Assessing the Association between the Financial Concerns and the Competence of Ghanaian Senior High School Teachers to Teach Personal Finance PDF
Abraham Ansong
A survey of practicing Senior High School teachers in Ghana was conducted to determine teachers' personal finance concerns and how that is associated with their competence to teach personal finance. A non-parametric statistical analysis was employed because the required sample of the population (Senior High School teachers in Ghana) could not be obtained. The results indicate that personal finance concerns correlates positively with ability to teach personal finance. Therefore, it was recommended that financial planners and institutions where these teachers seek practical financial solutions to their financial challenges should be incorporated in the financial literacy initiatives of second cycle schools.

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