Vol 7, No 1

Table of Contents

Articles

Psychometric Item Analysis and Validation of Indonesian Version of Intragroup Conflict and Group Atmosphere Scale PDF
Dwi Tyastuti, Hirotaka Onishi, Fika Ekayanti, Kiyoshi Kitamura
Interprofessional education (IPE) is a learning model that brings together a variety of professions. This learning has the potential for the emergence of group conflict. It was needed the tools to evaluate the dynamics of conflict that arose within the group in IPE. The objective of this study was to validate the scales of intragroup conflict (IC) and group atmosphere (GA) in Indonesian version. A survey was conducted at the State Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia, in 2011 and we collected 302 valid questionnaires from medical, nursing, pharmacy and public health students. The IC and GA scale were adapted in Indonesian language through the cross-cultural adaptation process. The psychometric properties were analyzed by both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA of IC scale on 11-items and GA scale on 8-items accounted for 65.1% and 62.0%, respectively, of the total variance. The final model of IC scale is 10 items three-factors and GA scale is of 8-items three-factors. Both scales demonstrated the satisfactory reliability, adequate convergent validity and acceptable indices of goodness of fit. The study suggested that the Indonesian version of IC and GA scale are valid to assess the attitudes to manage intragroup conflict during IPE.

Four Sources of Uncertainty in Communication Ontology PDF
Ștefan Vlăduțescu

The study examines the uncertainties regarding the elements of Communication Ontology from the theoretical universe of communication discipline.

There are three primary analytical findings:

a) a coherent and rigorous ontology of human communication is missing;

b) communication as discipline has no thoroughly explicit ontology;

c) the current rudimentary ontology of communication is under the standards of a rigorous and robust ontology.

The main identified sources of uncertainty are the following:

a) the fact that the attitude and behavior of the communication discipline to take seriously as a discipline was established only in 1990’s;

b) the fact that a discipline without a secular past, communication cultivates itself as always being at the beginning;

c) the fact that, being always met and treated with courtesy, communication discipline has built hardly "face" among other subjects, leaving a false impression of instability;

d) enjoying success without making waste of effort and acting as "being on her own", communication did not, like other disciplines, the effort to define clear, to establish and impose an ontology.

Women Administrators in Education: Leadership Behavior Assessment According to Teachers’ Perceptions PDF
Engin Karadag, Fatih Bektas
The purpose of this study is to reveal leadership behaviors of women administrators in education. The research was designed using the survey model and it was conducted with 936 randomly selected teachers who work on the schools administered by women administrators, in Istanbul. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (Hemphill & Coones, 1957) has been used for data collection. T-test and ANOVA techniques have been used for data analysis. As the result of the research, it has been found that women administrators usually show “initiation of structure” type leadership behaviors.

Consumption of Animal Protein in Adamawa State: An Empirical Analysis PDF
H. B Inyang, E.F Adebayo, S.O. Anyanwu
This study examined the consumption of animal protein in Adamawa State, specifically the consumption of meat, fish, milk and egg. The socio-economic characteristics, the income and expenditure distribution, the level of expenditure on major animal proteins as well as the variables influencing household consumption of major animal proteins were analyzed. One hundred and sixty – one households were randomly sampled from ten wards in the two Local Government Areas. Data were collected with structured questionnaires. The analytical tools include the arithmetic mean, percentages, income elasticity, marginal propensity to consume (MPC) and multiple Regression analysis. The results show that about 86% of the household heads were males, 94% were between 21 and 60 years, 81% were married. 78% were civil servants, 95% received education. Also, about 91% of the household had between 1 and 10 people in their domain, while income distribution indicated that about 86% of the household earned an average income of not more than N28, 000.00 per month. Fifty-two percent (52%) of the household expenditure was on carbohydrate, while 37% was spent on major animal protein products. The regression analysis indicated that education (at 5%), total household expenditure on food (at 1%), marital status of the household head (at 1%) and gender of the household head (at 1%) were the major determinants of household expenditure on the major animal protein products. The study recommends the reduction on income taxations, introduction of informal education and intensification of family planning education.

Assessment of Socio-Economic Vulnerabilities among Urban Migrants in South-East Delhi, India PDF
Haroon Sajjad, Purva Jain
The association between vulnerability and its indicators physical, social, economic and health among poor migrants was examined through primary field survey using structured questionnaire. Five regions namely Abul Fazal, Batla House, Noor Nagar, Okhla Vihar and Zakir Nagar were purposively selected since these areas have high concentration of poor urban migrants. For evaluation of Composite Vulnerability Indices in South-east Delhi, we followed relative approach used by UNDP for developing HDI on an inter-country basis.  To verify relationship between vulnerability and its variables, Karl Pearson’s two tailed correlation was performed and it was found that there exists statistically significant positive and strong correlation among indicators of vulnerability. The results of our study showed Okhla Vihar and Zakir Nagar highly vulnerable and Abul Fazal, Batla House and Noor Nagar relatively less vulnerable. Hence all regions require priority for socio-economic development. CVI has proved significant tool for measuring relative vulnerability in the region.

Poverty and Gender Inequality in Asset Ownership among Households in Southern Nigeria PDF
Glory E. Edet, Nsikak-Abasi A. Etim
Whereas gender equality is a basic human right, and closing the gender gap is key to achieving many development objectives, development stakeholders concerned with achieving gender equality are often constrained by inadequate information to justify channeling limited resources toward closing the gender gap. This study was conducted to fill this lacuna by providing information on gender inequality in the ownership of certain assets among households. With the aid of structured questionnaire, data were obtained from 60 households using the multistage sampling technique. Results of analysis were presented using histograms. Results show considerable gender differentiation in the ownership of land, home, business and savings. The degree of gender differentiation in the ownership of consumer durables reveal that women in most households own appliances associated with domestic labour whereas men have a near monopoly in the ownership of transport vehicles, refrigerators and media sets. Result also indicates that poultry was owned by women in majority of the households. Result shows a high degree of gender disparity with respect to the share of male and female homeowners. Because access to land is crucial for the livelihoods of the rural poor, policies to ensure that women who form the bulk of the rural poor have secure access to land and other vital resources should be encouraged. Policy options that will encourage women own occupier homes should also be formulated.



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