Vol 7, No 1

Table of Contents

Articles

Treatment of Nutrient-rich Municipal Wastewater Using Mixotrophic Strain Chlorella kessleri GXLB-9 PDF
Yunkai Zhang, Ning Ma, Tingting Fu, Jianzong Meng, Wenguang Zhou
Growing algae on wastewaters offers a promising way for effective N and P recycling as well as low-cost algal biofuel feedstock accumulation. In this study, a locally isolated microalgae strain Chlorella kessleri GXLB-9 (C. kessleri GXLB-9), was evaluated for growth and nutrient removal efficiency grown in nutrient-rich wastewater centrifuged from activated sludge (NWCAS). And 3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethyl urea (DCMU), one chemical that could block microalgae-based photosynthetic pathway, was used to evaluate the growth mode (autotrophy, heterotrophy or mixotrophy) of C. kessleri GXLB-9. The results showed that C. kessleri GXLB-9 was a facultative heterotrophic strain and 7-day batch cultivation idicated that the maximal removal efficiencies for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were over 59%, 81%, and 88%, respectively, with high growth rate (0.490 d-1) and high biomass productivity (269 mg L-1 d-1). In addition, the impact of light-dark cycle on algae growth and nutrient removal was minimal while pH has significant impact on both algae growth and nutrient removal efficiency.

Jamaica: A Case Study in Debt Sustainability and Sustainable Development PDF
Abdullahi Olabode Abdulkadri
Jamaica’s debt burden has pitched economic development against environmental protection in the country’s quest for sustainable development.  Anemic economic growth has prompted the government to institute revenue and expenditure reforms and implement two debt exchanges that have stabilized the economy.  However, the debt burden has limited government’s fiscal space to engineer a much needed capital formation with the most promising prospect for any major foreign direct investment coming from a proposed US$1.5 billion investment to build a World Class Logistics Hub in a protected area.  Thus, the debt situation has led the government to prioritize “what is to be developed” at the expense of “what is to be sustained” as Jamaica channels its sustainable development course.

Institutions and the Resource Curse in Nigeria PDF
S.E. Ologunla, R.O. Kareem, K.A. Raheem

The objective of this study is to look at the relationship that exists between institution and resource curse in Nigeria using secondary data from 1986 to 2012. The study used descriptive statistics and the unit root test was tested using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF). Granger causality was also carried out in addition to correlation and regression analyses. However, Economic  Freedom of the World ( EFW ) was represented by strong institution and Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) and crude oil export  ( OE ) as resource curse, Results showed that there is a negative relationship between strong institution of Nigeria and resource curse with coefficients of  0.003874 between EFW and OE .

The results concluded that there is a need to strengthen the institutions (Size of government, legal structure and security of property right, regulation of credits etc) in Nigeria with a view to avoiding the pitfall of resource curse.

Strengthening Livelihood Flows on Payment for Environmental Services through Local Lenses: Evidences from the Bolsa Floresta Programme PDF
Patricia Gallo Barbosa Lima
Payment for Environmental Services (PES) schemes have been broadly acknowledged as a tool to promote conservation of natural resources, but a critical debate is addressed on whether PES improves the livelihood of local populations, while providers of these services — a debate which is also critical to current discussions on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) mechanism. In this context, few studies assess the local perspective in their potential role within this process. This study evaluates the local view regarding the proposed objectives of a PES initiative in the Brazilian Amazon. The results indicate that at the Sustainable Development Reserve (SDR) Uatumã, the perception of the traditional communities, mostly regarding the participatory process and the non-financial benefits received by these communities, differs in some aspects from those benefits outlined within several objectives proposed by the programme. The perception of local communities about their relationship with the forest plays an essential role in successfully applying a long-term benefit-sharing intervention. Hence, in a strategy that involves long-term benefits, trust between both parties is essential from the beginning may be a pre-requisite for satisfaction. The opinions and preferences of the impacted stakeholders should be considered during the design of such schemes rather than only during project implementation.

An Experimental Study of the Drying of Papayes by Solar Panels PDF
A. Abene, L. Rostan, Y. Derdour, T. Tolba
One of the major problems concerning the use of solar panels for heating is the low level of thermal interchange with air in the dynamic vein of the solar panel. This weakness in such systems does not enable an optimum performance or high level of thermal efficiency to be obtained from their use. There is, however, a very noticeable improvement to thermal transfer when baffles are placed in rows in the ducts. To conduct the experiments, solar energy was simulated, the aim being to improve the ratio between temperature and thermal efficiency of an air heating plane solar panel and to make use of the system to reduce the drying time of papayes.

Preservation or Exploitation? What to Do with Caribbean Ecosystem PDF
Alecia Evans
Many Caribbean islands grapple with the problems of how to pursue economic development while preserving their fragile natural environment. For many of these countries, the main income generating sectors such as agriculture, fisheries, tourism, and mining induce negative stressors on the natural environment. This paper presents a discussion on the contrasting approaches used by Jamaica and Belize in incorporating natural resource management in the development process. It documents the success and challenges of each country in pursing sustainable development by highlighting how the development process affects the environment and how each country mitigates these effects. The paper also makes a case for promoting the use of economic valuation methods as an essential tool in informing policy decisions in the Caribbean, particularly on matters affecting the natural environment.

An Investigation on the Additional Cost of Green Products: The Willingness to Pay of University Students PDF
Emre YILDIRIM
Nowadays, it is inevitable for companies to be human oriented as well as being customer oriented. Because one of the factors that provide long-term profitability is to be socially responsible. Companies perform this with the help of green marketing applications. The aim of this study is to determine the willingness to pay of university students for the additional cost of green product, and reveal consequences for companies in terms of price adjustments. In this study used convenience sampling, 10 different durable and non-durable products have been determined. Different price levels selected in order to expose price sensitivity. While determining the price categories increases in the cost of 5 % have been taken into consideration. The survey implemented to 481 participants at Sakarya University. It’s concluded that consumers are willing to pay an additional price for green products. Price sensitivity is found to be relative. Product itself is also found important as well as price. Consequently for a better environment companies keep prices at acceptable levels and consumers purchase more green products.



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