Vol 5, No 2

Table of Contents


Emergency Loan Need among Graduate Students Signals Debt Trends in Higher Education May Influence the Expansion of the U.S. Economy Long-term PDF
Efosa C. Idemudia, Ralph Ferguson
This article proposes that the rising cost of graduate education and debt may suppress interest of domestic and international students in advanced education and impact the market economy.  There are three challenges indicated through emergency loan need increases that deter students from graduate education. First, intellectual and skills growth has been a path to wealth building with the cost of education modest and not a potential lifetime debt.  Second, Responsibility Centered Management (RCM), galvanized due to reduction of state and federal funds to support education, may have the detrimental effect of exponentially increasing tuition and fees to maintain programs, staff, and faculty.  Third, the phenomena of Nonomics evolve where the student invests the sweat equity to achieve the credentials, but lifestyle enrichment is deferred ten to twenty years due to education cost.

Social Functionality of Self Help Groups in Tanzania PDF
Deogratias B. Aikaruwa, Gerald A. Sumari, Grace N. Maleko
Self Help Groups are common grassroots member – based institutions in which people join to take collective actions in addressing different issues pertaining poverty reduction and improving their socio – economic situations. This research report is an output of a case study investigation on examining the social functionality of Self Help Groups (SHGs) in two wards of Shinyanga District (i.e. Samuye and Kizumbi) in Tanzania. In this study, data, both primary and secondary was collected from the field using various data collection techniques including interview, questionnaire, focus group discussion and documentary review. The data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively, Statistical Packages of Social Scientist (SPSS) being helpful in the analysis. The findings revealed that, the groups were purely informal and people joined for various motives including credit and saving, social support and technical support. These groups have been beneficial to members both socially and economically. From the findings, the report recommends that, SHGs as favourable grassroots institutions, if institutionalized, they will be effective way of mobilizing efforts and resources of poor people in the course of combating poverty.

Automated Teller Machine (ATM) Operation Features and Usage in Ghana: Implications for Managerial Decisions PDF
Yazeed Abdul Mumin, Yazidu Ustarz, Ibrahim Yakubu
Automated Teller Machine (ATM) packages of banks in Ghana have operated for a very long time without full exploration of all essential functions of the facility and this has baffled the minds of the public and other decision makers about the effect of ATM operations on customer demand for it. It is in line with this view that this study was conducted to assess the operational features of the ATM and the factors that account for customers’ willingness to use ATM. The study modelled the operational features of ATM using queuing modelling and a probit model was estimated to determine the factors affecting customer usage of ATM. Data was collected from 160 customers of banks with ATM facilities in the Wa Municipality. It was realized that there is a high traffic intensity for ATMs use for most banks in the Municipality. Also, higher educational attainment, number of ATMs per bank, convenience, security features, efficiency and low transaction charges have significant effect on influencing the usage of ATM services. It is recommended that management of these banks need to upsurge the number and quality of ATM services in order to increase access and usage of ATM.

Leadership, Change and Wisdom PDF
Tarik Atan
In this article, the concept of leadership from the perspective of “manager – leader" dyad is analyzed by classifying different scholarly views. After discussing each perspective, paper focuses on management and leadership as different concepts and stress the necessity of both with a special emphasize on leadership.  Presenting change as the differentiating factor between the two, and considering the ever changing atmosphere of the business landscape, necessity of becoming leaders by embracing change and imperative use of thinking skills instead of cushy employment of memory, is explained by paralleling an argument on the evolution of the human brain as a metaphor. And finally a short introduction to the concept of Managerial and Leadership Wisdom is presented.

An Evaluation of Polytechnic Strategies to Industry Personnel Needs PDF
Canaan Mpala
Strategic management has been taken on-board by polytechnics in Zimbabwe with a mission to produce quality graduates for the formal and informal sectors. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the polytechnic’s strategies in meeting industry personnel needs. A case study method was adopted with data collected from managers drawn from different industries, polytechnic’s management, students and academic staff. Analytical techniques used include: matrices of correlations, cross tabulations, and univariate analysis. While literature emphasizes the importance of resources for successful implementation of strategies, this study revealed otherwise. With inadequate resources, Bulawayo Polytechnic managed to produce quality graduates, relevant to its customers.

Internal Marketing Elements’ Influence on Employee Performance: A Case of Harare Institute of Technology in Zimbabwe PDF
Pinigas Mbengo, More Chinakidzwa
A considerable number of organisations in the service industry are realising the significance of internal marketing as they address and respond to the changing environment in order to obtain competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the internal marketing mix elements vital for employee performance at Harare Institute of Technology. Most government institutions have remained rigid due to their bureaucratic structures and this has caused them to adopt slowly new techniques like internal marketing that foster innovation and productivity. In order to make a break through to this problem, most European state based institutions have marketised their operations. 106 questionnaires were distributed to both academic and non-academic staff. The relationships of the variables in the proposed model and the properties of the scale were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The findings of the study show that there existed strong relationships between training and innovation, empowerment and motivation. However, internal processes were not related at all to employee productivity. Based on the results, a considerable number of recommendations and suggestions were made.

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