Vol 9, No 1

Table of Contents

Articles

Econometric Analysis of Characteristics Influencing Cattle Prices in Selected Livestock Markets in Yobe State, Nigeria PDF
A.B. Mohammed, A.T. Lawal, S.A. Musa
A survey was conducted to analyze buyers’ preference between Sokoto Gudali, White Fulani and Red Bororo in some selected livestock market in Yobe State.Three major cattle markets were purposively selected, based on high concentration of cattle, cattle marketers and major distributing point of the cattle in the state. Potiskum cattle market, Ngalda cattle market in Fika local Government and Ngalzarma cattle market in Fune Local Government were purposively selected for the study. Some 390 Buyers were selected from three markets on weekly basis for period of 26 weeks. Descriptive statistics, Ginni Co-efficient and multiple regressions were employed to analyze the collected data. The result of the study revealed that, 39.7% of cattle, buyers were within age group of 31-40years, 100% of the respondents were male and 96.7% were found to be married. The respondents (52.3%) were small buyers category, 24.9% medium and 22.8% were large-scale buyers. Greater percentage of the respondents (63.3%) preferred Red Bororo. The Ginni co-efficient model shows that the markets structure was competitive with low Ginni co-efficient of 0.4863. Hedonic regression generally showed that In all the three cattle market, Red bororo breed of cattle were compared with White Fulani and Sokoto gudali, the results shows that white fulani were found to be statistically significant at probability level of(P<0.05), in model I, II and IV with negative coefficient, and sokoto gudali were also found to be significant though negative in model I to IV, which implies that price of Red bororo were higher than that of two other breed,female cattle were found to be statistically significant (P<0.001) with negative coefficient, this implies that the price of male cattle were higher in all the cattle markets compared with female cattle. Big size cattle were found to be statistically significant (P<0.001) with positive coefficient,short horn cattle were found to be significant ( P<0.01) with positive coefficient in all the models. The height of cattle is another important physical characteristic that determine the size of cattle and height was found to be highly statistically significant (P<0.001) in all the models and positive coefficient, implies that cattle with height attracted more price which means for any unit increases in these variables buyers would be willing to pay premium. 1t was recommended that, research efforts should target the characteristics of these cattle that buyers are sensitive to, which will enhance profitability, production and marketing.

Characteristics of rice produced under direct and indirect SRI practices in Chimala Area in Mbarali District Tanzania PDF
Zacharia Saimon Katambara, Marco Mng’ong’o, Consolatha Chambi, Zacharia Malley
The current status of rice production in Chimala Area in Mbarali is dominated by conventional rice growing practices with limited adoption of the system of rice intensification (SRI), which has been reported of having more advantages. This study evaluated the characteristic of rice produced under SRI and conventional practices in Chimala Area in Mbarali District of Mbeya Region in Tanzania. The evaluation considered the farm management practices, rice yields and the characteristic of the rice grains. The unlevelled characteristics of the farms and the variation of the soil influence the rice yields and the quality of the grains. The transplanting age of the seedling was within the age limit preferred when SRI practices are implemented and the limited water availability for conventional rice growing practice necessitated the intermittent wetting and drying of the rice fields which is preferred for SRI practices. The application of agrochemicals such herbicides limit the aeration of the root system and the development of a healthy roots system. Bird scaring is among the activities which increased the production cost of rice grown under SRI practices. Rice yields under SRI practices where more than 16ton/ha against less than 8ton/ha for conventional rice growing practices. The rice grains grown under SRI practices was observed to be suitable for seeds. With regard to milling, conventionally grown rice produced more good rice (69%) SRI (51%) grown. However, the large percentage of husks (24%) likely suggest that rice grains produced under SRI are more protected and further provide evidence as a good rice seed producing practice. The quality of cooked rice indicate that rice produced under SRI practices has higher aroma and fragrance when compared to that produced under conventional practices. Further studies should consider the effect of the number of seedling per hill, application of herbicide instead of applying push weeder and the suitability of using by-product, rice husks as a source of energy.

Yield of Durum Wheat Cultivar Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimes and Rainfed Conditions PDF
Sourour AYED, Noura OMRI BENYOUSSEF, Afef OTHMANI, Mounir REZGUI, Mongi Ben YOUNES
The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications in two different locations (Kef and Bousselem). The effect of four nitrogen treatments (0, 75, 100, 120 and 140 kg/ha of N) was assessed for Maali durum wheat variety on five agronomic traits: biological yield, grain yield, harvest index, 1000 kernel weight and nitrogen use efficiency. Analysis of variance revealed significant effect (P< 0.01; P< 0.001) of the nitrogen treatments for all studied traits. However, no nitrogen treatment x site interaction was noted. Except for nitrogen use efficiency, both location exhibited significant variation (p<0.01) for all the traits examined. Biological yield, grain yield, harvest index, 1000 kernel weight and nitrogen use efficiency increased with an increase in nitrogen levels. In comparison to kef site, greatest results were obtained in Bousselem site under all nitrogen levels for all measured traits. Maximum average yield (2157.27 kg/ha) and (3013.11 kg /ha) was unregistered under N4 treatment (140 kg/ha) in Kef and Boussalem site respectively. A significant and positive correlation was noted between nitrogen rates and biological yield (r = 0.74**), grain yield (r = 0.66**), harvest index (r = 0.84**) and 1000 kernel weight (r = 0.85**). In this region, it seems that the application of 140 kg/ha of N fertilization lead to great agronomic performance of Maali durum wheat variety.

Hedonic Price Analysis of Characteristics Influencing Cattle Prices in Ngalda Livestock Markets in Yobe State PDF
A.T. Lawal, A.B. Mohammed, S.A. Musa
This research was carried out to analyze characteristics influencing cattle prices in Ngalda livestock markets in Yobe State. Fika Local Government was purposively selected based on high concentration of cattle and cattle marketers, Ngalda cattle market has being the major distributing point of the cattle in the state. A total of 130 Buyers were selected using systematic sampling by truncation on weekly basis for period of 26 weeks. Descriptive statistics, Ginni Co-efficient and multiple regressions was employed in analyzing the collected data. The result of the study revealed that 100% of the respondents were male, 47% of cattle buyers were within age group of 31-40years and 81.5% were found to be married. The respondents (66%) were small buyers category, 21.5% medium and 12.3% were large scale buyers. The Ginni co-efficient model shows that the markets structure was competitive with low Ginni co-efficient of 0.474. The regression results indicated colour of the ear, shape of the cattle face and type of horn were the factors that influenced the buyer’s preference. Hedonic regression shows that female cattle, big carcass size, short horn cattle and height were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05), (P < 0.001), (P < 0.05) and (P < 0.001) respectively with positive coefficient across all the models implies that for any unit increase in these variables, buyers would be willing to pay more premium. 1t was therefore recommended that research efforts should target the characteristics of these cattle that buyers are sensitive to so as to enhance profitability production and marketing.

Competitiveness of Fish Farming in Lagos State, Nigeria: An Application of Policy Analysis Matrix PDF
O.W. Osawe, K.K. Salman

This study assessed the competitiveness of commercial fish farming in Nigeria using the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) on a sample of 84 fish farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select the number of respondents in the study area. Both primary and secondary data were utilized for the analysis. The study employed two fish production outputs including smoked and fresh fish products. The PAM results revealed that both products were both privately and socially profitable. However, smoked fish was more profitable of the two products. Furthermore, results revealed that outputs from the production outputs (smoked and fresh fish) are taxed as revealed by the nominal protection coefficients on output and input. This was further confirmed by the Effective protection coefficient (EPC) and Subsidy ratio to producers (SRP) values. The study recommends that government should ensure a level of policy intervention in aquaculture production in which fish farmers are given incentives that will incentivize them to improve productivity and the quality of fish produced and processed. One of these incentives can be in the form of provision of improved farm technologies for production and processing in order to enhance competitiveness.

Growth Analysis and Fruit Yield of Capsicum Chinense, Jackquin as Influenced by Compost Applied as Foliar Spray and Soil Augmentation in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria PDF
O. A. Dada, Y. O. Ogunsesu
Foliar feeding of plant nutrients promotes maximum nutrient absorption by increasing sugar level in plants thereby stimulating soil activity and plant nutrient uptake. Application of compost as foliar spray is a rare cultural practice among vegetable growers in Nigeria. It is however not clear, if conventional soil augmentation with compost will enhance performance of pepper plant better than foliar spray with compost extract. Therefore, growth, dry matter and fruit yield of pepper Capsicum chinense, Jackquin as influenced by either foliar spray or soil augmentation with compost was investigated. Two field trials were conducted during 2014 and 2015 early planting seasons at the Crop Garden of Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology Univeristy of Ibadan. Six treatments comprising of two pepper (NHCaC9 and a landrace) varieties and two methods of compost application (Foliar and soil augmentation) and a control (no fertilizer) were laid out in RCBD with three replicates. Compost and compost extract were prepared following standard procedures. Compost was applied at the rate of 8t N ha-1 as soil amendement two weeks before transplanting while 0.48 kg/L ≡ of 8 t N ha-1 was applied as foliar spray with a hand sprayer fortnightly. Data were collected on growth, dry matter, yield and yield components. Percentage crude protein content was determined using standard procedures. Application of compost extract as foliar spray enhanced growth, development and quality of pepper better than soil augmentation. The indigineous pepper cultivar produced the highest fruit yield (472.00 kg/ha) on plots sprayed with foliar compost extract. Interaction between methods of compost application and the two pepper varieties had no significant effect on net assimilation rate but traditional cultivar sprayed with compost extract had the highest net assimilation rate (0.03g/cm2/day). Fruits of NHCaC9 cultivar harvested on plots incorporated with compost had the highest (43.45%) crude protein content.



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