Vol 6, No 2

Table of Contents

Articles

Competitiveness of Beef Processing in Borno State of Nigeria: A Policy Analysis Matrix Approach PDF
A. O. Mamza, K. K. Salman, I. B. Adeoye
Beef processing improves food safety, extend shelf-life, better nutrition as well as increased household income. It is vital to examine the Competitiveness and impact of government policies on beef processing to evaluate the contribution of the sub sector to food security and economic empowerment. The study therefore investigated the Competitiveness, Comparative Advantages and effect of government policy on beef processing in Borno State. Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting 86 processors within the study area. The study utilized both primary and secondary data and was analyzed using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM).The study identified three main beef products namely Kilishi, Tsire and Balangu. PAM result revealed that Kilishi, Tsire and Balangu processing were privately and socially profitable. Private profit of N1,087,278.41, N839,576.95, N439,857.69 and Social Profit of N5,810,065.52, N3,347,518.07 and N1,398,042.95 were estimated for Kilishi, Tsire and Balangu processing respectively. Private Cost Ratio (PCR) of 0.27, 0.28 and 0.35 were obtained for Kilishi, Tsire and Balangu indicating competitiveness of the enterprises. The Nominal protection coefficient on output (<1) and input (>1) indicated that the processors are taxed. The Effective Protection Coefficient (EPC) of Kilishi, Tsire and Balangu processing were 0.24, 0.32 and 0.43 indicating low value added at domestic price. The study recommends provision of incentives to processors to increase competitiveness and secured environment for private sector participation.

Trivariate Analysis of the Flow of Loan-Able Funds to Agricultural Sector in Nigeria PDF
Aniekan J. Akpaeti
The study investigates the effects of financial sector reforms on the flow of loanable funds from commercial banks to agricultural sector in Nigeria. Secondary data was collected from Central Bank of Nigeria covering the period from 1970-2009 and analyzed using trivariate Granger causality approach which is more reliable than the bivariate model. The result reveals that financial sector was not a major contributing factor in the disbursement of funds. This further highlights the fact that financial institutions like the commercial banks have always found an alternative portfolio investment more lucrative than lending to the agricultural sector. The study also revealed that there were no causal (directional) relationship between financial sector reforms and the flow of loanable funds in Nigeria. This provides a clue to the characterization of what may be obtainable in most developing countries with fragile financial sector and open economies. It therefore recommended that financial sector should be motivated to supply the funds needed for this activity while the government should provide the enabling environment conducive for farming as a business through concessionary interest rates, tax free and import duty concessions with strong macroeconomic policies targeted to bring meaningful growth in the agricultural and financial sector. These financial and fiscal incentives when provided would encourage investments and output growth in the agricultural sector of the country.

Assessment of Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) Tolerance of Some Elite Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Varieties PDF
O.D. Amusa, L.A. Ogunkanmi, J.A. Adetunbi, S.T. Akinyosoye, K.A. Bolarinwa, O.T. Ogundipe
The resistance of cowpea to bruchid infestation has been a major concern to plant breeders as some elite cowpea varieties become susceptible to the polymorphic nature of this storage insect pest. The current status of ten bruchid resistant varieties collected from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria was evaluated for bruchid tolerance. Each of the varieties was infested with two pairs of bruchids and comparative data was taken for 60 days. Results showed a delay in bruchid emergence with mean development period for successful adult emergence ranging from 32-47 days. Nine of the varieties studied showed percentage seed damage above 80% and percentage pest tolerance below 50%. Susceptibility index indicates that seven of the studied varieties to be moderately resistant and the remaining three to be resistance to the bruchid infestation with TVu 11953 being the most resistant of all with index 1.78. Analysis of seed coat resistance indicated no significant difference in number of eggs laid, mean bruchid development time, percentage bruchid emergence, percentage seed damage and susceptibility index between the smooth and rough seed coats. The study indicates other factors, not seed coat nature to be responsible for bruchid resistance in cowpea.

Genetic Variability of Agronomic Traits of Low Nitrogen Tolerant Open-Pollinated Maize Accessions as Parents for Top-Cross Hybrids PDF
D.J. Ogunniyan, S.A. Olakojo
Discrimination among parental accessions maintains the agronomic performance and purity of hybrids. Low nitrogen tolerant open-pollinated maize were screened for variation in agronomic characters, parents’ identification and grouping using principal component and single linkage analyses, Pearson’s correlation and bi-plot methods. The accessions were genetically distinct and diverse. BR9928-DMRSRLN proved intercrop-able and drought tolerant. LNTP-WC3, Sint-Marzoca-Larga and ART/98/SW5-OB were best pollen materials. Pairs of days to anthesis and silking, total number of leaves and ear height, leaf length or width and number of leaves below uppermost ear, veination index and leaf width, and shell and field weights can be improved simultaneously. First four PCs accounted for 80% variability. PC I had the strongest discriminating ability but insufficiently distinguished the accessions. First three PCs identified anthesis-silking-interval, plant height, number of veins, ear height, total number of leaves, leaf width, veination index, field and shell weights, days to anthesis and silking as discriminators. The accessions clustered into three. LNTP-YC6 and ILE-1OB flowered earlier; BR99TZL-Comp4DMSRSR and Sint-Marzoca-Larga yielded highest.

Eco-friendliness of Weed Management Methods in Organic Farming: The Need for Extension Education PDF
P.T. Owombo, O.Z. Aregbesola, K.A. Adeloye
Weeds constitute a major problem in crop production, and smallholder farmers have depended on the wide use of conventional weed control methods that mostly involve the use of synthetic chemicals which have attendant adverse effects on man, other organisms and the environment. In the face of the environmental and human hazards posed by the indiscriminate use, abuse and misuse of these chemicals, government at all levels as well as international organisation like the European Union (EU) have advocated eco-friendly weed management methods in order to maintain a healthy and sustainable environment. Research revealed that farmers do not make wide use of the eco-friendly control methods owing to a number of factors such as lack of farmers’ acceptability, cost implication, labour intensiveness and lack of virile extension system to mention few. It is therefore imperative to discuss the EU’s position on use of synthetic chemical in weed management, non-chemical or eco-friendly weed management methods, benefits associated with the methods and their limitations, dangers associated with the misuse of synthetic chemicals in weed management as well as the role that extension education can play in ensuring wide use of non-chemical methods of weed management and Integrated Weed Management (IWM). Future research needs are also identified.



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