Vol 4, No 2

Table of Contents

Articles

Evaluation of Liming Materials and Bradyrhizobium Inoculation on the Productivity of Soya Bean in the Humid Tropical Ultisols of Southeastern Nigeria PDF
W. B. Binang, T. O. Ojikpong, Y. A. Garjila, D. M. Esang, D. A. Okpara
Field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the response of soya bean to pre-sowing seed inoculation with Rhizobium japonicum strains and liming the soil with different lime materials. The experiments were conducted on sandy loam soils at Calabar in the rainforest and Obubra in the southern guinea savanna zones of Cross River State, Nigeria. Treatments comprised factorial combinations of Rhizobium (with and without inoculation) and liming material (no lime, calcite, gypsum, and dolomite) laid in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. Liming the soil was effective in increasing root nodulation, plant vegetative growth and grain yield in Calabar, but not at Obubra. Pre-sowing seed treatment with Rhizobium japonicum was also more effective in Calabar than at Obubra. Root nodulation, plant height, pod-bearing branches, reproductive node number, dry matter yield, pods/plant and yield of grain were significantly influenced by the combined effect of inoculation and liming, but not the number of seeds and seed weight/pod.  Sowing inoculated seeds in calcite- limed soils gave the best results but the difference between gypsum and dolomitic lime was not significant. The grain yield which averaged 2.34 t/ha in the Obubra grown crop was higher by 21.9 % compared to the Calabar grown crop. Differences in the response to seed inoculation and liming were attributed to weather and edaphic factors.

Do Regional Characteristics and Sub-regional Integration Matter in Intra-ECOWAS Trade on Livestock Products? PDF
Jonathan Reuben, Chukwuemeka John Arene
The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze the trade potentials in the West African region. It starts with review of livestock products import and export within and outside the region and the bilateral strength of livestock trade regionalism was also tested using trade intensity index. Also the effects of WAEMU sub-regional integration and ECOWAS regional characteristics on intra-ECOWAS trade were assessed using the gravity model. This was achieved by employing panel data for the period of 11years (2001-2011). The results suggest high import than export of livestock products within and between regions. The level of trade regionalization was relatively high in WAEMU sub-region than ECOWAS region. The traditional gravity variables were consistent with the gravity theory. Also the alternative hypothesis that trade blocs, economic and geographical variables did significantly influence trade in the sub-region was accepted at 1% probability level. The study therefore, recommends that more efforts be made to remove non-tariff barriers in order to promote intra-ECOWAS trade on livestock products since trade diversion was noticed.

Assessment of Manure Management Practices and Nitrogen Levels on Soil Phosphorus in an Alfisol PDF
J. Tanimu, S.W.J. Lyocks
Field studies were conducted in an Alfisol in two different locations at Samaru-Zaria, Nigeria. The objectives were to determine the effects of cow dung management practices, time of application and urea fertilizer on the soil phosphorus content at direct and residual effects in two locations. The treatments consisted of 3 management practices, 4 durations of field storage and 2 levels of urea arranged in a 3x4x2 factorial experiment fitted to a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. The soil texture of the two locations were different, this contributed to the differences in the available P of the soils of the two locations. The application of the cow dung irrespective of how it was managed resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase of available P in the soil more than the control. The combination of the management practices (handling methods, time of application and urea levels) significantly (P < 0.05) affected the available P of the soil, but none of the treatments showed any consistency at the two locations and at direct or residual effects. The direct effects tend to have high available P values than the residual effects at both 4 Weeks after planting and at harvest in the two locations.

Cooperative Gardens and Rural Development the Case of Help German in Gutu Ward 25 Zimbabwe PDF
Leonard Chitongo, Emilia V Magaya
The study assesses the contributions of cooperative gardens brought by Help German in the process of reducing vulnerability and enhancing rural development through putting the poor as their first target in the community. The research was conducted in ward 25 of Gutu District which is situated in Masvingo Province. Rushwaya community has experienced severe droughts due to erratic rainfalls being received in the area as a result of climate change. In a bid to reduce vulnerability of such communities to further disasters, NGOs like Help German came in to help the people. The research pinpoints how the beneficiaries benefited from participating in the program and indicates how Help German helped the local people in improving their livelihoods. The researcher used both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques to solicit information related to the study. Questionnaires and interviews were administered to the respondents by the researcher. Focus group discussions and observation were also used to collect data from the respondents. Stratified random sampling and simple random sampling were used as sampling procedures to select respondent  a sample of 30 respondents was obtained representing a population of 15 villages participating in the project. The researcher concluded that Cooperative Gardens have greatly improved the standards of living of Rushwaya community. The community`s capitals have been improved through the livelihoods brought by Help German which are cooperative gardens, livestock production and rehabilitation projects. The researcher recommends that for the programme to be sustainable a lot has to be done on water harvesting because the community is still receiving inadequate rainfall for gardening.

An Appraisal of Community Development Efforts in Ikot Ekpene and Ikono Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State PDF
Immaculata Mathias EKANEM
This paper focuses on the appraisal of community development projects in Ikot Ekpene and Ikono Local Government Areas. It identifies the self-help developmental projects in Ikot Ekpene and Ikono LGAs. Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area is an Urban Centre in Annang tribe while Ikono Local Government Area is a rural area in Ibibio tribe. Five projects from each LGA were purposively selected. Thirty opinion leaders of the community members from each Local Government Area were selected. Structured sets of questionnaire and oral interview were used to collect the data. Cross tabulation, simple percentages and ratios were used to analyze the data. The result revealed that, 100% of the projects with socio-economic and educational benefits are based in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area; and 60% of the projects with socio-cultural benefits are located in Ikono Local Government Area.  Ikot Ekpene  LGA contributed a matching grant of 32% while Ikono LGA contributed 64%.Government and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) Supported Ikot Ekpene LGA financially and otherwise more than  Ikono LGA.  The ratio of completed projects to the uncompleted ones in Ikot Ekpene LGA was 3:2 and that of Ikono LGA was 2:3. Communities with completed project all agreed that they benefited from their projects. All communinties agreed at100% that finance was their major obstacle to project completion at the stipulated time. Apart from contributions, launching and donations, assistance from Government, Non-Governmental Organization and Philanthropist were good financial sources of fund for project implementation and completion. Among   other recommendations given in the body of the paper, communities who require supports from Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) should embark on projects with Socio-economic/Educational benefits than Socio-cultural since such projects tends to interest such sponsors for the benefits of  the  communities, the tenants and those of neighbouring  communities. They should also contribute their required amount to meet their matching grants. All on -going projects should be completed to avoid wastage of resources.

Factors Influencing Mechanized Farming and Farm Size Ownership in Nigeria PDF
D.C.A Amadi, G.O. Onogwu, K.U. Orisakwe, S.S. Zaku
Agricultural Extension services in Nigeria had been making concerted efforts to make farmers adopt improved technology in their farm operations. If the country is to achieve increased food production for her teeming population, adoption of improved technology and increased farm size is inevitable. According to Amao et al, (2003) rural farmers cultivating an average of one hectare each still characterize the Nigerian agricultural sector. This paper examined the factors that influence the adoption of mechanized farm technology and farm size increase among rural farmers in Nigeria. Data on methods of farm land preparation, farm size and Agricultural Development Program (ADP) inputs to rural farmers were randomly collected from 435 rural farmers between 2006 and 2009. The instrument for data collection was a set of structured questionnaire cum oral discussion. The oral discussion focused on methods of farmland preparation, need for increased farm size as a means of improving farm output and sustainability. The data generated were subjected to t-test and regression analysis. Result show that farm size increased as irrigational facilities and loan to farmers were increased while farm technology is positively influenced by irrigation facilities, loan and presence of extension agents. The implication is that increased food production will be achieved if farmers are provided irrigation facilities and loans as these motivates the adoption of mechanized farm technology.

Optimizing System of Rice Intensification Parameters Using Aquacrop Model for Increasing Water Productivity and Water Use Efficiency on Rice Production in Tanzania PDF
Zacharia Katambara, Frederick C. Kahimba, Winfred B. Mbungu, Paul Reuben, Muyenjwa Maugo, Fikiri D. Mhenga, Henry F. Mahoo
Producing more rice while using less water is among the calls in water scarce regions so as to feed the growing population and cope with the changing climate. Among the suitable techniques towards this achievement is the use of system of rice intensification (SRI), which has been reported as an approach that uses less water and has high water productivity and water use efficiency. Despite its promising results, the use of SRI practice in Tanzania is limited due to less knowledge with regard to transplanting age, plant spacing, minimum soil moisture to be allowed for irrigation, and alternate wetting and drying interval for various geographical locations. The AquaCrop crop water productivity model, which is capable of simulating crop water requirements and yield for a given parameter set, was used to identify suitable SRI parameters for Mkindo area in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Using no stress condition on soil fertility, plant spacings ranging from 5 cm to 50 cm were evaluated. Results suggest that the yield and biomass produced per ha increase with decreasing spacing from 50 cm to 20 cm. Preliminary field results suggest that the optimum spacing is round 25 cm. However, the model structure does not take into consideration number of tillers produced. As such, the study calls for incorporation of the tillering processes into AquaCrop model.

Response of Cocoa Export Market to Climate and Trade Policy Changes in Nigeria PDF
Chukwuemeka John Arene, Ezea Christopher Nwachukwu
This study examined the response of cocoa export market to climate and trade policy changes in Nigeria. Specific objectives were to describe the trend in cocoa export market and climate/trade policy changes in Nigeria; analyze the level effects of climate change in cocoa productivity arising from farmland area and labour changes, analyze the effects of cocoa productivity and trade policy changes on cocoa export market in Nigeria; forecast the possible future changes in cocoa export market due to climate and trade policy changes; and  make policy recommendations based on the research findings. For the purpose of this study, secondary data were used. A comprehensive trend in cocoa export market and climate/trade policy changes was described. A 2-stage Least Square Dynamic Panel Regression Model was used to address cocoa production and export responses, respectively, while a Monte Carlo simulation test was used to simulate, under various climate and trade/price policy scenarios, for possible climate and trade policy impacts on future cocoa output and export. It was observed that the Nigerian cocoa export market has been fluctuating and would likely continue over time. It was also observed that there has been consistent fluctuation in temperature and precipitation although relatively smaller in comparison to the export market fluctuations but still significant since a minimal increase or decrease in these climate change variables could have a significant impact especially in agriculture compared to trade policy influencing factors. The Monte Carlo simulation test recorded a slight level of relationship between cocoa output/export and climate/trade policy variables. This implies that a 10% increase or decrease in these variables, would have slight effects on cocoa output/export in Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was recommended, among others, that there should be a trade-off between trade policy gains and losses due to forest conversion as a result of cocoa hectarage expansion.



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