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Agricultural productivity is the cornerstone to increasing rural household welfare in Masvingo region (Munongo 2012). However the spread of diseases especially HIV and AIDS prevalence in the area threaten to reduce the gains the government of Zimbabwe had made in improving the rural livelihoods. This paper uses a structured questionnaire that had 123 respondents in Masvingo rural to investigate the efficiency effects of health status. Data were collected on health status and production characteristics of the farmers and analyzed using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method of Stochastic Production Frontier model. The result of the effect of ill-health on technical efficiency of the farmers showed that land, labour, fertilizer and seed were positively related to output. In the inefficiency model, adverse health, age, household sizes have positive effects on inefficiency of the farmers. It could be concluded that it is possible to increase productivity through improvement on the stock of health status of the farmers.
Current research was conducted out at the Field Crop Institute-Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (Algeria) during 2010/11 and 2011/12 crop seasons. The objectives were to determine traits affecting grain yield in 29 bread wheat genotypes and to establish the nature of relation between grain yield and yield components by partitioning the correlation coefficients between grain yield and its components into direct and indirect effects by using simple correlation, stepwise regression and path analysis. The obtained results indicated that grain yield was positively correlated to biological yield, straw yield and number of spike per plant. The results of step by step regression showed that traits including biological yield and harvest index had justified approximately 99. 7% of grain yield variations. In the path coefficient analysis, biological yield and harvest index should be considered as the main yield components because these traits showed a positive direct effects towards increasing grain yield with the values of + 1.051 and + 0.364, respectively. Depending on the findings of this study, biological yield and harvest index may be used an effective selection criterion to improve genetic yield potential of bread wheat genotypes.
The study was carried out to investigate the performance of rural poultry enterprise in Nigeria with respect to survivability and mortality rates during the various seasons of the year under three rearing systems. The two major seasons of the year (Rainy and Dry seasons) were considered in phases namely early rainy, late rainy, early dry, and late dry seasons, while the rearing conditions were intensive, semi-intensive and extensive (free-range) systems. In each of the phases of the seasons, farmers were visited and questionnaires used to extract responses from the various categories of farmers in the area regarding the management conditions adopted and the performance of their poultry under the different rearing conditions, notably the prevalent causes of mortality, the time they occur most, and number that died/survived in each season. A total of two hundred and twenty (220) rural poultry farmers in the State were selected for the study. The results showed that 120 (54.5%), 80 (36.4%) and 20 (9.1%) rural poultry farmers practiced extensive, semi-intensive, and intensive systems respectively. It was observed that rearing system play a highly significant (P < 0.01) role on the mortality and survivability of birds in the rural poultry enterprise. Mortality of birds is very high (53.6%) under the free-range system of poultry management, followed by the semi-intensive system (39.05%) and lowest in the intensive system (7.36%). A higher rate of mortality of birds in the free-range rural poultry system was witnessed during the late rainy (58% of birds reared) and late dry seasons (59% of bird reared). Survivability was very high under the intensive system of poultry management in all seasons while survival rate in the early rainy and early dry seasons of the year was higher in the semi-intensive than free-range system. It was deduced that season of the year and management systems adopted in rural poultry production influenced the mortality rate and number of birds surviving.
|Efficacy of Different Insecticides against Thrips on Peas, Pisum Sativum (L.) in Vivo Condition
Hakim Ali Sahito, Muhammad Babar Arain, Bhugro Mal, Muhammad Samiullah Channa, Khalid Hussain Dhiloo
The experiment on the efficacy of different insecticides against thrips, Caliothrips indicus on peas, Pisum sativum L. was conducted at the experimental field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam, during November, 2011 to February, 2012. The experiment was designed in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments and three replications. The insecticides Radiant, Crown and Finvil were applied thrice at the interval of 15 and 21 days of second and third spray respectively. The results showed that all three insecticides performed well in reducing pest population. However, Radiant gave best results against pea thrips, Calothrip indicus. The overall mean population per leaf 7.33, 8.78 and 10.23 of Caliothrips indicus was recorded in the plots treated with Radiant, Crown and Finvil, respectively as compared to control plot (12.13 thrips per leaf) during the first spray. During second spray the overall mean population per leaf 7.04, 8.02 and 8.97 of thrip was recorded in the plots treated with Radiant, Crown and Finvil, respectively as compared to control plot (14.30 thrips per leaf). Whereas, during third spray the overall mean population per leaf 3.92, 5.06 and 6.13 of thrip was recorded in the plots treated with Radiant, Crown and Finvil, respectively as compared to control plot (14.62 thrips per leaf). All insecticides performed well up to 72 hours interval. ANOVA results showed significant difference between treatments and LSD test showed that efficacy of different insecticides remained non-significant at 24, 48 and 72 hours.
Optical technologies can be developed as practical tools for monitoring plant health by providing unique spectral signatures that can be related to specific plant stresses. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine differences in canopy temperature and leaf reflectance of different durum wheat under both well-watered and moisture stressed conditions and (ii) evaluate the relationships between canopy temperature and leaf reflectance at Red and Blue (RB) wavelength. We use numerical image analysis by Mesurim Pro (Version 3.3) softwarefor estimate leaf reflectance at Red and Blue (RB) wavelength.In this study irrigation treatments affect significantly flag leaf reflectance at RB and canopy temperature. Significant correlations were registered between leaf reflectance and canopy temperature under both conditions irrigated and non irrigated; these best correlations proved the efficiency of using leaf reflectance at RB in screening for drought tolerance in durum wheat cultivars.
The paper identifies intra and extra-regional import trade in 1868 HS 6-digits products by Cape Verde at the single country and 13 trade classification section levels, from the EU, the ECOWAS sub-region, and the ROW. Sensitive products enumeration was based on “Cape Verde’s imports of products from the different trade classification (TDC) sections- from ECOWAS, the EU and the rest of the world (ROW), of which ECOWAS member nations were suppliers at the single country level”. It investigates the likely trade, revenue and welfare consequences of Cape Verde of embarking on free trade under economic partnership agreements (EPAs) with the EU, using the partial equilibrium analysis and suggesting how EPAs can facilitate intra-regional trade. Cape Verde and indeed most other ECOWAS member nations would likely benefit from EPAs by adjusting to and treating all products of trade classification sections currently imported from the region as sensitive for EPAs, hence postponing any reductions or removal of tariffs on imports of such products from the EU. This measure would likely deepen regional integration and sustain markets and traded products within the regional markets. The EU could therefore support measures that enhance the productivity and competitiveness of domestic producers to ensure improved supply-side capacity. Cape Verde entering into such agreements should consider liberalization of products of the trade classification sections that are not produced and marketed among members of the region. Liberalizing substantially across all products of all trade classification sections, even considering 20% as sensitive products across board would have adverse trade, revenue and welfare impacts. Policies should be geared towards careful adjusting to liberalization patterns and reforms that would sustain regional markets and reallocate resources from contracting to expanding products of various trade classification sections. This will go a long way to improving, sustaining and deepening regional integration through trade on TDC sections 01-13 products.
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) has been enforcing sub-regional integration through such interventions like free international trade, common external tariff wall, consolidation or freezing of custom duties, non-tariff barriers to intra-trade and gradual phasing out of duties on industrial products from community projects over a period of 6-10 years at 10-16.6% annual rates of reduction, depending on the classification of member states based on the level of development, location and importance of customs revenue. The trade co-operation Agreements of ECOWAS was aimed at expanding the volume of intra-Community trade to ensure the integration of the sub-region through trade on goods originating from member countries. The objectives of this study are to: (i) review the pattern of regional trade in prepared foodstuffs at the instance of Nigeria (ii) assess intra-industry trade in residue and wastes from food industry sub-sections (iii) evaluate the share of intra-industry trade in the total trade of residue and wastes from food industry among ECOWAS member nations (iv) determine the effects of regional characteristics on the intra-industry trade of the product sub-section. The results revealed that intra-industry trade in residues and wastes are influenced partners’ (GDP), population, and national value added by manufacturing. Efforts to employ efficient methods in production of raw materials for food mill industry is recommended, while regional stakeholders should increase output as well as add value in terms of packaging to improve the trade and integration within the sub-region.
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