Vol 12, No 2

Table of Contents


An Assessment of Soil Fertility Management Practices in Central Dry Zone of Myanmar PDF
Rajendra P. Shrestha, Aye Aye Thinn, Said Qasim
This study was carried out in two villages in central dry zone of Myanmar to assess farmers’ soil fertility management strategies and practices and their influencing factors. Kanswe village had irrigation water availability due to dam constructed by the governmetn and the Inganet village had reservor built by the villagers themselves which are reffered in this study as government irrigation project (GIP) and local irrigation project (LIP) respectively. Excel spreadsheet and SPSS were used for analyzing data. Qualitative techniques were used for descriptive data. Independent sample t-test was carried out where comparison was needed for dependent and independent variables. The main locally adopted soil fertility management practices (SFMPs) include the application of farmyard manure (FYM), green manuring, the use of chemical fertilizers, crop rotations, crop residues management and water saving techniques. Study found that inorganic fertilizer application has increased. Critical issues for soil fertility management in the areas were water scarcity, soil salinity, soil erosion, high price of chemical fertilizer and financial problems. There is a need to promote integrated plant nutrient management systems (IPNMS) in both the project areas.

Haematological and Biochemical Characteristics of Broiler Finisher Fed Different Feed Forms (Pelleted and Mash) PDF
S.U. Ilo, F.C. Maduneme, O.C. Ogbu, M.N. Okonkwo
A 56-day study was carried out to evaluate the effects of two different feed forms on the haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler finisher birds. A total of 90 day old “Sayed” chicks were assigned to three dietary treatments, T1 (mash diet) served as control, T2 (50% mash+50% pelleted) and T3 (pellet diet) in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 30 birds per treatment and each treatment replicated three times with 10 birds per replicate. Feed and water were served ad-libitum throughout the experimental period. Data were collected for haematological and biochemical parameters analysis. The haematological parameters include packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH).The biochemical parameters include urea, total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, cholesterol and glucose. The haematological parameters showed non-significant (P>0.05) differences among treatment means, while that of biochemistry showed non-significant (P>0.05) differences in all the parameters except urea that differed significantly (P<0.05). Feed forms to a large extent do not pose any deleterious effect on the birds.

Assessing the Impact of Neem on Fall Armyworm Damage to Maize Crops: A Field-Based Study in Nabdam District, UER, Ghana PDF
Zibrim Shaiba, Bright Amoore, Ibrahim Amoore, Elisha Renne
This paper examines the effectiveness of neem as a biopesticide (using both oil and seed cake) obtained from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) for controlling fall armyworm infestations in maize crops in Nabdam District, Upper East Region, Ghana. In July 2018, a demonstration maize field plot, with the monitoring of fall armyworm damage carried out before and after neem treatments. After two weeks, no fall army worms were seen in the section treated with neem oil spray, while they were found in the neem cake and control sections. In September 2018, maize yields were weighed. Although heavy rains affected the yield, a slightly greater yield was seen in the neem-oil sprayed section. The results of this field application of neem biopesticides is also considered in terms of practicality, effectiveness, cost, and environmental and health issues. The paper concludes with a discussion of the importance of farmer education for effective fall army worm monitoring and neem biopesticide use. Since registered neem oil products are currently being manufactured by the Nabdam Neem Company in Nangodi, the district headquarters, their availability for the study of neem effectiveness in countering FAW damage in northeastern Ghana is particularly appropriate.

Effect of Manual Screw Press Utilization on Output, Income, and Standard of Living of Gari Processors in Kwara State, Nigeria PDF
Adegbola Adetayo Jacob, Wegh Francis Shagbaor, Ikwuba Agnes Agbanugo, Nwafor Solomon Chimela
The study assessed the effect of utilization of manual screw press for gari production on output, income, and standard of living of gari processors in four local government areas across the ADP zones in Kwara state, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique and a semi-structured questionnaire as instrument, data for the study were collected from a sample of three hundred and eighty four (384) gari processors who use the screw press in the state. Descriptive statistics namely frequency count, percentages and mean was used for analysis of generated field data. The study revealed a 35.5 percent increase in gari production was achieved with utilization of the screw press for gari production. Also, average annual income from gari processing after utilization went from N809662 to N1249375; 35.19 percent increase. Furthermore, average household properties owned by processors went from 2.31 before utilization to 3.24 after utilization which is an increase of 28.7 percent. The study concluded that utilization of manual screw press by gari producers in Kwara state has lead to increased output, a higher income, and a better standard of living for gari producers. These increases would most probably lead to increase in their probability of escaping poverty, and in the long run would lead to sustainable food security for the country.

The Concept of Biodiversity and its Relevance to Mankind: A Short Review PDF
Dickson Adom, Krishnan Umachandran, Parisa Ziarati, Barbara Sawicka, Paul Sekyere
Biodiversity plays significant roles in the lives of humans. Unfortunately, global statistics indicate a speedy decline in the numbers of flora and fauna diversities, with extinction threats for many of them. This short review paper explains the scope of biodiversity while highlighting its tremendous aid to mankind as well as its intrinsic and anthropogenic values that justifies the need for their conservation and sustainable use. The paper relied on extensive review and interpretative analysis of existing secondary literature on the subject and provides synthesizing interactions between biodiversity and their ecosystems. The paper unveils the direct and indirect benefits of biodiversity which are pertinent to life sustenance. It cautions governments to support bodies and institutions that are tasked with the responsibility of conserving biodiversity. This support in the form of logistics and funding would aid them in carrying out the education and sensitization programs on the need to conserve biodiversity for the perpetual sustenance of the lives of the current and future generations.

Effects of Tillage Practices and Organic Cropping Systems on the Yield of Sorghum (sorghum bicolor L.) and Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L) in Yatta Sub-County, Kenya PDF
Chepkemoi Janeth, George N. Karuku, Richard N. Onwonga, Vincent M. Kathumo
The study was conducted between October 2012 to February 2013 short rain season (SRS) and April 2013 to August 2013 long rain season (LRS) in semi-arid Yatta sub-county, to evaluate the influence of tillage practices, cropping systems and organic inputs on the yield of sorghum and sweet potato. A Randomized Complete Block Design with a split-split plot arrangement replicated thrice was used. The main plots were tillage practices (TP); Oxen plough (OP), tied ridges (TR) and furrows and ridges (FR). The Split-plots were cropping systems (CS); mono-cropping (MC), intercropping (IC), and crop rotation (CR) while split-split plots were organic inputs; Farm Yard manure (FYM), Minjingu Rock Phosphate (MRP), combined MRP and FYM (MRP+FYM) and the control. Test crops were sorghum and sweet potatoes with Dolichos (Dolichos lablab) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) either as intercrops or in rotation. Plant sampling was done by harvesting the grain and tuber and yield determined by weighing with a precision balance. The yields increased significantly (P≤0.05) with application of MRP+FYM of 16.37 and 1.38 t ha-1 for sweet potatoes and sorghum mono-crop, respectively under TR were observed. There was also significant (P≤0.05) yield increase of chickpea and dolichos under combined TR, IC of sorghum with chickpea (1.44 t ha-1) and dolichos (1.38 t ha-1) and with application of MRP+FYM during SRS of 2012. Improved yield of srghum and sweet potatoes were attained with the combined TR, MC and with application of MRP + FYM.

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