Biomass Consumption in Nigeria: Trends and Policy Issues

Suleiman Saad, Idris M Bugaje

Abstract


The purpose of this paper is to analyse the demand for and policy implications of consumption of biomass energy in Nigeria.  Analysing the demand for biomass energy is important if these sources of energy are to be used efficiently and on a sustainable basis. The result shows that the biomass energy surpasses all other forms of energy in Nigeria during the last four decades despite Nigeria being a major producer of commercial energy globally.   The study reveals that biomass played an important role as a source of energy in all the six geopolitical the regions as well as both rural and urban households and this would likely to remain so in the near future.  Although the importance of biomass was declining in relative terms, in absolute terms its use appears to be increasing; suggesting there is high level of energy poverty in Nigeria. Factors identified as responsible for such phenomenon include poverty, inaccessibility to alternative energy sources and cultural factors.  A correlation analysis conducted shows a highly positive relationship between biomass consumption and poverty levels as well as highly negative correlations between incomes and biomass consumption in all the six geopolitical regions in Nigeria. There is also regional bias in the consumption of biomass. A major conclusion drawn from the study is that due to health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of biomass energy consumption, there is a need for deliberate policies to enhance efficiency and sustainability of biomass energy in Nigeria and make clean commercial energy more accessible and relatively cheaper.

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