Vol 2, No 1

Table of Contents

Articles

Some Additions and Comments to Breeding Biology of Blackheaded Wagtail Motacilla Feldegg Michahhelles, 1830 (Passeriformes, Motacillidae, Motacillinae) in European Russia PDF
I.V. Muraviev, E.A. Artemyeva
Species-specific features of blackheaded wagtail Motacilla feldegg Michahelles, 1830 (Passeriformes, Motacillidae, Motacillinae) breeding biology were identified in European Russia. A tendency to current species range shift is traced. Critical estimation of literary information about some peculiarities of reproduction and ecology of black-headed wagtail is carrying out on boundary XIX-XXI centuries, estimation of contemporary quantity, limited factories and regularities of species distribution on research territory of European part of Russia are gived. Distribution and quantity M. feldegg are irregular in this region and determine by presence of nesting biotopes and potential forage reserve. General character of distribution of this species estimates as a local and not numerous that gives foundation to include M. feldegg to some region Red Data Books of Russia and neighboring countries.

Physico-Chemical Quality of Water, Sediments, Effluents and Biota in Alaro Stream and a Pond in Ibadan PDF
Julius Idowu Komolafe, Tonye Okorie, Emmanuel Tyokumbur
A study was carried out on the physico-chemical quality of water, sediments, effluents and biota in Alaro stream and a pond in Ibadan.Impacts of effluents from Pepsi 7up and Sumal Ltd on Alaro stream and Isoglass Ltd on the pond that receives part of its effluents were studied in four months. Effluents, water and sediments samples were collected at the different points. Physico-chemical parameters, metals (trace and heavy) and non-metal concentrations were determined. Benthos   samples   were   also   collected   at   the   different designated points in Alaro stream and the pond and their populations were estimated. The metals concentrations of the samples showed that   effluents discharged by Pepsi 7up contained 1.44, 1.55, 3.51, 1.35,   1.30 and   1.29mgl-1 of Cadmium.  Nickel, Copper,   Arsenic,   Mercury   and   Lead respectively.  Sumal Ltd discharged effluents with 0.98, 3.58, 4 33, 1.04, 0.81, 0.85 mgl-1 of the same metals respectively while that of Isoglass Ltd contained 0.9,  1.24,  1.73, 0.95, 1.01 and 1.01 mgl-1 of the same metals respectively. The physico-chemical parameters of water obtained from the pond showed that mean BOD, DO, alkalinity, pH, Nitrates and phosphates were 3.17, 4.6, 2.30, 6.47, 25.6 and 1.12 mgl-1 respectively. At the point of entry of the combined effluents from Pepsi 7up and Sumal Ltd into Alaro stream the values were 2.19, 8.16, 378.25, 0.25, 45.98 and 0.87 mgl-1 in that order.       Metals (trace and heavy) concentrations of physidae and Potamogeton surrounding the pond and Eurypanopeus adspersus and banana sucker, Musa species surrounding Alaro stream (about 1 metre to the water) were determined. These showed a higher concentration than that of the surface water.

Sensitivity of Certain Bacteria Isolated from Local and Imported Drugs to Aqueous and Alcoholic Tea Extracts PDF
Abdalnabi Jwaied Abid

Aim. The current study carried out to investigate the possibility of microbial contaminated of drugs and biological products with detection of bacterial types contaminants then investigate the antibacterial effect of tea extracts.

Materials and methods. Different local and imported drug types were collected from houses and some pharmacy during May to October 2013, bacterial counts and type of contaminant isolates were estimated by conventional methods, then antibacterial activity of tea extract were investigated on the isolated bacteria.

Results. Syrup and drops type were the most contaminated drugs than other types of drugs, syrup reveals the highest rate of bacterial contamination (20%), while capsule reveals low rate (7.4%). Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas genera form the predominant bacterial isolates (25.8 and 22.5 %) respectively, while, Proteus genus reveals rare appearance. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of green and red tea shows antibacterial inhibitory effects against bacteria isolated from drugs. The lower minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC ) appear on Staphylococcus  0.82 and 1.12 mg/ml with alcoholic  and aqueous green tea extract respectively Although, microorganisms spread everywhere if a minimal growth requirements is presents, drugs and biological products should be completely sterile.

Conclusion. Microbial contamination of drug samples appear with a percent 20% The most contaminant bacterial isolates was Staphylococcus spp. Alcoholic tea extracts appear to be  the most effected than aqueous. Alcoholic extract reveals a lowest minimum inhibitory concentration on Staphylococcus spp.0.82 mg/ ml. Drugs from houses reveal high rate of bacterial contaminants.

Bioconcentration of trace metals in the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) from Alaro stream ecosystem of South West Nigeria PDF
Emmanuel Teryila Tyokumbur, Tonye Grace Okorie
The level and tissue bioconcentration V,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,As,Se,Mo,Ag,Cd and Pb were determined in the viscera and shell of the freshwater snail, Melanoides tuberculata in the upstream and downstream of Alaro stream, South West Nigeria. Trace metal concentrations in snail and sediment samples collected from six stations were measured using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mean trace metal concentrations (ppm) of V,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,As,Se,Mo,Ag,Cd and Pb in the snail were estimated to be 2.10-3.26,28.31-33.32,1668.21-2398.43,1.75-3.98,6.18-8.12,33.86-89.23,12.10-66.35,0.78-0.96,9.86-11.35,1.44-1.73,1.98-2.33,2.88-3.22 and 10.12-14.12 respectively. The study shows that M. tuberculata is capable of bioconcentrating trace metals in magnified quantity than that found in the sediment. The tissue concentration pattern was correlated with the amount of trace metals in the sediments.Bioconcentration of the trace metals V,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,As,Se,Mo,Ag,Cd and Pb varied between the viscera and the shell with the viscera having the highest concentration of all the trace metals. Results of the study indicate that ingestion of sediments and algae may be the main uptake route of the trace metals in Melanoides tuberculata.

Impact of New Microbial PR/PGP Inducers on Increase of Resistance to Parasitic Nematode of Wild and RNAi Transgenic Rape Plants PDF
V.A. Tsygankova, L.O. Biliavska, Ya.V. Andrusevich, O.N. Bondarenko, A.P. Galkin, O.A. Babich, V.E. Kozyritska, G.O. Iutynska, Ya.B. Blume
The bioprotective effect against parasitic nematode Heterodera schachii Schmidt of new microbial PR/PGP inducers on the wild spring rape plants of Kalinivsky cultivar and RNAi transgenic rape plants was studied. In the field conditions on the artificially created invasive background the considerable diminishing of amount of nematodes on the roots of wild rape plants up to 89.7 % - under action of Avercom and up to 38.5 % - under action of Avercom-nova 2 was found. The increasing of productivity of grain yields of infected by nematode wild rape plants up to 2775.6 pounds/ha - under action of Avercom and up to 2156.1 pounds/ha - under action of Avercom-nova 2 compared to control was observed. Using Dot-blot hybridization method the increase of difference in the degree of homology between the cytoplasmic mRNA from control rape plants and small regulatory si/miRNA from infected by nematode and treated with PR/PGP inducers Avercom, Avercom nova-1 and Avercom nova-2 rape plants: up to 30-39 % - for wild and up to 38-47 % - for RNAi transgenic plants was found. In the wheat embryo cell-free system of protein synthesis the considerable increase of silencing activity of si/miRNA isolated from infected by nematode and treated with these PR/PGP inducers rape plants: up to 26-43 % - for wild and up to 58-86 % - for RNAi transgenic rape plants on the templates both of nematode mRNA and rape plant mRNA was revealed. Results of the study indicate that PR/PGP inducers increase synthesis of si/miRNA with specific anti-nematodic activity in the rape plants. Owing to this process the increase of resistance of wild and RNAi-transgenic rape plants to parasitic nematode occurs.

Biodegradation of Glyphosate by Fungi Species PDF
F.E. Adelowo, O.A. Olu-Arotiowa, O.S. Amuda
Pesticides are chemicals that combat the attack of various pests on agricultural crops. The use of synthetic pesticides has become an indispensable tool in agriculture. Their use over the years has led to serious environmental pollution. In view of this, efforts have been made by scientists to remove these pollutants from the environment. Degradation of pesticides pollutants by the use of microorganisms has been one of the most environmentally safe and cost effective methods, since these microorganisms exist in abundance in the environment. Glyphosate, an herbicide used for the control of weeds was made to undergo degradation by fungi isolates. The fungi growth was monitored by measuring cell turbidity with a UV-visible spectrophotometer (Genesys IOS VI) at 660nm. The released phosphate ion was determined by spectrophotometric analysis using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Genesys IOS VI) at 690nm, using Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium  oxysporum fungi as biodegraders. The release of phosphate ion, was an indication that the first step in glyphosate degradation by fungi is cleavage of the Carbon-Phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of an inorganic phosphate which could be utilized as a source of phosphorus by fungi. There was an inverse relationship between the fungus growth and the amount of phosphate ion in the broth culture over a period of time. The products of degradation were determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC). Three spots were detected in Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis while three peaks were detected in High Performance Liquid Chromatographic analysis. The spots and peaks were identified as glyphosate, aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) and sarcosine respectively. The results showed that the isolated fungi species were able to utilize glyphosate as both Phosphorus and Nitrogen sources for their growth. These could only be possible through breaking of C-P and C-N bonds. The percentage concentration of detectable sarcosine present in the culture broth was far greater than that of AMPA(sarcosine, 89% and AMPA, 6%), when analysed by HPLC. This suggested that the major metabolic degradation pathway of glyphosate is through the breaking of Carbon-Phosphorus (C-P) bond.  The percentage of residual glyphosate present by the 7th day was about 5%.



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