Vol 1, No 2

Table of Contents

Articles

The Effect of Hand Treatments on Staphylococcus Aureus: A Normal Flora of the Human Palms PDF
Adesola Adetutu Ajayi, Banke Titilope Aiyedun, Grace Iyabo Olasehinde
A total of forty samples of hand swabs obtained from female and male students’ palms at Covenant University, Ota were studied and examined for the presence of S. aureus. The samples were inoculated on Mannitol Salt agar (MSA) and incubated at 37oC for 24h and 48h. Colonies which appeared yellow on MSA were subjected for further tests. Macroscopic examination indicated that the organism was Gram positive after the Grams staining technique and that they appeared in clusters and spherical (coccoid) in shape under the microscope. The isolates were characterized using several biochemical tests. The organism fermented Glucose, Lactose, and Sucrose with acid production without gas and Starch with gas production only. The isolates were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin, Pefloxacin and Amoxycillin but resistant to Erythromycin, Ceftriazone and Cotrimoxazole antibiotics. The effect of hand treatments on the microbial flora of the palms were studied and washing of hands thoroughly with soap, water and using an alcohol based hand sanitizer can prevent the spread of staphylococcus skin infections.

Immune Status of the Risk Group Calves within the Neonatal Period and its Correction PDF
A.G. Shakhov, D.V. Fedosov, L.Y. Sashnina, T.A. Yerina

Introduction. The number of neonatal calves with morphofunctional insufficiency, which should be referred to risk group, increased because of high-productive cow breeding in Russia. Hypotrophy is widely spread among the number of inborn development disorders and intranatal asphyxia is widely spread among the acquired ones.

The mentioned pathologies are accompanied by apparent humoral and cellular defence level decrease in neonatal calves. It is also accompanied by the imbalance among key mediators, produced by various types of cells. This work is devoted to study of various immunocorrective agent impact on the immune system formation in calves of the risk group.

Study Materials and Methods. 32 neonatal calves with different levels of morphofunctional development were selected and divided into 4 groups. The calves of the 1st group were treated by probiotic “Prolam”, containing indigenous microflora; the calves of the 2nd group were treated by synthetic hexapeptide “Immunofan”; the calves of the 3rd group were treated by probiotic together with oligopeptide; the 4th was a control group (therapeutic agents were not used). The nonspecific immunity indexes (BSBA, BSCA, BSLA, LPA, PN, PI), concentration of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, synthesized by leukocytes after a twenty-four-hour stimulation by Staphylococcus aureus or Salmonella dublin, gene expression TLR-2, TLR-4, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, TNF-α, INF-γ, TGF-β were studied in calves.

Results. The studies stated that immunotherapeutic agent application at the moment of immune system formation in neonatal calves within colostrum period promoted the correction of immune response to antigens in the changed living conditions. At the same time the direction of the immune reaction development depends on the origin of the immune drug and its effect. The combination of agents, possessing various application points, led to immune response intensity decrease.

Conclusion. The use of the immunocorrective agents in neonatal animals promotes more adaptive immune response formation. Developing and improving immunodeficiency treatment and prophylaxis schemes, applying immunotherapeutic agents of various origins to animals, it is necessary to take into account the mechanisms of their effect and application points.

Histopathological Changes in the Muscle Tissue of the Fish Clarias batrachus Exposed to Untreated and Treated Sago Effluent PDF
Ramesh. F, K. Nagarajan
The histopathological changes are observed in the muscle tissue of the fresh water fish Clarias batrachus exposed to different concentrations of untreated and treated sago effluent. The concentration chosen for untreated effluent and treated effluent were 50% and 100%. The histology of muscle tissue showed various degrees of deterioration when compared to control. The deterioration was very much reduced in the treated sago effluent when compared to the untreated sago effluent.

Assessment of Ecofriendly Methods of Eliminating Cockroaches PDF
T. C. Mogbo, J. J. Okeke, M. C. Nwosu, I. I. Ijuh
There is need to research into other means of eliminating cockroaches that have no negative effect on health of humans and other animals, the study aims at the comparative assessment of the efficacy of three traps (jar trap, glue trap and sticky trap) as ecofriendly methods of eliminating cockroaches. The traps were set at 7:00 pm and inspected at 7:00 am daily for three weeks. The traps were baited with sugar and ripped plantain. The captured cockroaches were collected with forceps, killed with 10% chloroform before preserving with formalin. Jar traps had the highest catch success, followed by the glue traps while the sticky trap had the least catch success. The result was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P<0.05. There was significant difference P<0.05 in the catch successes and  Test for “Means” also confirmed that jar traps and glue traps are statistically the same but are statistically different from the sticky trap.

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Mixed Leaf Powders of Vernonia amygdalina (L.) and Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) Against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) PDF
C. E. Akunne, B. U. Ononye, T. C. Mogbo
Plant leaf powders prepared from two plant species, Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and Azadirachta indica (neem) were used against adult cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) on cowpea grains. The leaf powders of Vernonia amygdalina L. (Va) and Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Az) were applied separately and in mixtures in the ratios of Va100%, Az100%, Va50%:Az50%, Va20%:Az80% and Va80%:Az20% respectively. They were evaluated under ambient laboratory conditions (30±3◦C and 75±3%). Mortality of adult C. maculatus at 24, 48 and 72hrs after treatment were recorded and compared with the control. All concentrations recorded higher mortality than the control except the mixture with the ratio Va20%:Az80%. The powder application at Az100% proportion caused the highest mortality, during the exposure period. It was also significantly (P<0.05) different from the control in adult mortality.



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