Immune Status of the Risk Group Calves within the Neonatal Period and its Correction

A.G. Shakhov, D.V. Fedosov, L.Y. Sashnina, T.A. Yerina

Abstract


Introduction. The number of neonatal calves with morphofunctional insufficiency, which should be referred to risk group, increased because of high-productive cow breeding in Russia. Hypotrophy is widely spread among the number of inborn development disorders and intranatal asphyxia is widely spread among the acquired ones.

The mentioned pathologies are accompanied by apparent humoral and cellular defence level decrease in neonatal calves. It is also accompanied by the imbalance among key mediators, produced by various types of cells. This work is devoted to study of various immunocorrective agent impact on the immune system formation in calves of the risk group.

Study Materials and Methods. 32 neonatal calves with different levels of morphofunctional development were selected and divided into 4 groups. The calves of the 1st group were treated by probiotic “Prolam”, containing indigenous microflora; the calves of the 2nd group were treated by synthetic hexapeptide “Immunofan”; the calves of the 3rd group were treated by probiotic together with oligopeptide; the 4th was a control group (therapeutic agents were not used). The nonspecific immunity indexes (BSBA, BSCA, BSLA, LPA, PN, PI), concentration of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, synthesized by leukocytes after a twenty-four-hour stimulation by Staphylococcus aureus or Salmonella dublin, gene expression TLR-2, TLR-4, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, TNF-α, INF-γ, TGF-β were studied in calves.

Results. The studies stated that immunotherapeutic agent application at the moment of immune system formation in neonatal calves within colostrum period promoted the correction of immune response to antigens in the changed living conditions. At the same time the direction of the immune reaction development depends on the origin of the immune drug and its effect. The combination of agents, possessing various application points, led to immune response intensity decrease.

Conclusion. The use of the immunocorrective agents in neonatal animals promotes more adaptive immune response formation. Developing and improving immunodeficiency treatment and prophylaxis schemes, applying immunotherapeutic agents of various origins to animals, it is necessary to take into account the mechanisms of their effect and application points.


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